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Tomus 6 Fasciculus 2 • 2004

Tomus 6 Fasciculus 2 • November 2004

  • The ethics of John Capreolus and the "nominales"
    Szerző Müller, Sigrid
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 301-314
    Absztrakt In his discussion about moral theology, Capreolus shows an impartial way of presenting the positions of the moderni. Capreolus was aware of the differences between the authors of this group. With respect to the notion of grace, he even regarded Aquinas's position as a happy medium between authors who were later attributed to the via moderna. The topics touched upon on this realm were not exposed to polemics. This can be explained by the explicitly theological character of the dispute.While Capreolus's polemics were directed against the use of theological tools in philosophical discussion, the realm of theology itself does not present a place of conict. His discussion of moral theology does not mention voluntarism. These concepts were not part of how the moral theology of the later called via moderna was understood at the beginning of the 15th century.
  • Ethical and metaphysical foundations of the rejection of determinism by Aquinas
    Szerző Dudley, John
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 315-324
    Absztrakt In this article, an attempt is made to show how freedom is possible. The objection that Divine Providence and its opposite, scientific or physical determinism, make freedom impossible is examined. The question is raised as to whether the universe consists of things (beings/substances), which is a presupposition of scientific determinism. The order in the universe is held not to be an objection to freedom. It is argued that the future is not determined on the basis that causes refer to the past, not the future. Freedom would appear to depend on the soul not being determined like a stone, but a self-mover. In addition, intellect appears necessary, since freedom requires choice, which in turn requires the capacity to deliberate. If both soul and intellect are required for freedom, it is understandable that human beings alone in the universe are free.
  • Physical Premotion and Human Freedom
    Szerző Svoboda, David
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 325-333
    Absztrakt The paper shows how two outstanding Thomists solved the problem of the Divine previous concursus in relation to human freedom. First, the paper explains what the Physical premotion according to Thomists is, and then it turns to the Thomistic definition of self-determination in order to follow the Thomistic explanation that the infallible outgoing of the act of willing is compatible with human freedom. The author tries to analyse some key Thomistic claims with the help of possible world semantics.
  • The problem of the Desiderium Naturale in the Thomistic tradition
    Szerző Rosenthal, Alexander S.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 335-344
    Absztrakt The theory of the desiderium naturale in St. Thomas Aquinas has raised some of the most difficult questions in the history of Roman Catholic thought. At issue is whether a natural desire to see the divine essence can be reconciled with the necessarily supernatural and gratuitous manner of this desire's fulfillment. The 16th century Dominican, Cardinal Cajetan strove to mollify the problem by proposing a duplex ordo in which the hypothetical state of pure nature would have its own natural end distinct from man's supernatural end. This ostensible solution to the issue was regnant until the broad ranging criticisms of the Nouvelle Theologie in the 20th century (represented especially by Henri De Lubac). The theologies of grace, which emerged after this critique - most notably that of Karl Rahner - sought to remedy the Neoscholastic separation of nature and grace by an equally problematic integration of the two orders. We propose that the dangers inherent in both the extrinsecism of Cajetan and the immanentism of Rahner can be addressed by turning to alternative interpretations of the desiderium naturale (in particular that of Domingo Bañez), which do greater justice to the harmony and integrity of the orders of nature and grace.
  • L'uomo e la donna nella dottrina di san Tommaso d'Aquino
    Szerző Volek, Peter
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 345-356
    Absztrakt As a detailed analysis of the text of St. Thomas Aquinas shows, Aquinas was influenced by the Aristotelian notion of a succession of souls. It means that the human embryo is infused at a moment of conception, first with a vegetative soul, then with a sensitive soul, and finally with a rational soul. Aquinas' description of a woman as mas occasionatus was also inuenced by Aristotle's biology, because a woman is not generated as a man with respect to the particular nature, but only with respect to the universal nature. This is why he attributes to a woman a certain lower dignity in her relationship to man, a biological and functional inferiority. Such an evaluation of a woman was not based on the metaphysical principles used for an explanation of human being, but it was caused by an influence of Aristotelian biology. This paper is an attempt to discuss an equality between man and woman on the basis of contemporary biology and genetics with the use of the Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical principles.
  • The Ethics of Natural Law according to Thomas Aquinas
    Szerző Stančienė, Dalia Marija
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 357-368
    Absztrakt Thomas Aquinas' concept of law is an example of the application of Aristotelian teleology to the integral theory of ethics, law and governing. Aquinas' concept of natural law is called moral law by many scholars. Man is able to anticipate the law of action in relation to eternal law, and such participation in eternal law Thomas calls natural law. The ethics starts from the principle good is to be done and evil is to be avoided. This principle is the basis for the rest of the ethical precepts concerning what is to be done and what is to be avoided. Man has innate general orientations on how to live and behave in this world. Conscience evaluates and judges the motives and moral qualities of actions. This is the main idea of natural law, which is described in the article.
  • Die ethische Rolle der Gefühle beim "Doktor des Humanums" Thomas von Aquin
    Szerző Boda, László
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 369-378
    Absztrakt The author tries to clarify the authentic human anthropology of St. Thomas, considering the "per excessum" interpretation of Hume and the "per defectum" valuation of the human emotions in stoicism. Thomas was referred to as "Doctor Angelicus" but he is also "Doctor Humanus". He applies the requirements of "recta ratio" and "virtus in medio" with respect to the role of human emotions, too. To the efficacy of "habitus operativus" he accepts the helping role of "disposition" as a type of inspiration. In this conception, "habitus entitativus", as the general state of health, is connected with the emotional forces of the soul, i.e. with the "passiones". The theological aspect of the feelings can be considered especially in relation to the inspirations of the Holy Spirit. This is the teaching of Sigmund Freud, too, but his "Libido" cannot obtain the joy of soul. The spiritual joy is the result of real happiness, or as Thomas puts it, "delectatio consequtur beatitudinem".
  • Affinità e discordanze tra S. Tommaso e Kierkegaard
    Szerző Sità, Michele
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 379-385
    Absztrakt The relationship between reason and faith is very delicate, and they both are elements of upmost importance for St. Thomas Aquinas but also for S. Kierkegaard. For Aquinas, man is composed of body and soul (the body is corruptible and the soul is immortal) and he affirms the individual's singularity, a conception that we can also find in Kierkegaard. We can perceive many other similarities but also a substantial difference between them; namely the fact that Kierkegaard is more tragic than St. Thomas, this is a particular difference that contains many contrasts. Maybe this interpretation seems rash but if we go into the problem in more depth we can also hear a conversation between both the philosophers. In this conversation the time barriers are knocked down and we can see the approach of two big thinkers on similar topics.
  • Die thomistische Scholastik und die husserlische Phänomenologie in der Gedankenwelt von Edith Stein
    Szerző Kormos, József
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 387-395
    Absztrakt Edith Stein (1891-1942) was at first a student of Edmund Husserl in Göttingen, later she became his assistant in Freiburg. According to Husserl, she had a thorough knowledge of phenomenology, and she applied it as well. Having become a Catholic and translating De veritate by St. Thomas Aquinas, she turned to the method of Aquinas with new interest. As a consequence, she integrates the topic of faith in the Husserlian phenomenology. She assumes faith as an epistemological source. This faith postulates its subject matter, i.e., the existence of God, because of intentionality. This way, she claims to avoid the danger if subjectivism or solipism present in the Husserlian brackets. Her interpretation of faith is twofold as well as the essence revealed in the case of Husserl. For Stein, the faith found in the transcendental sphere is also valid knowledge in everyday reality, although this knowledge by faith - and here she relates to the mystics - is also different from ordinary knowledge inasmuch as it refers to the essence, God, and the existence of God at the same time. Using the Husserlian phenomenology and the scholastics of Aquinas, Stein aims at a religious philosophical grounding in which the existence-postulate of Aquinas and the essence-postulate of Husserl are both present.
  • San Tommaso D'Aquino dopo (e prima di) Martin Heidegger
    Szerző Cselényi, István Gábor
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 397-411
    Absztrakt Modern humanism, in the form of Marxism and existentialism, is humanism without God where the present-day man has lost his transcendental sources. These novel, "post-modern" philosophies have created a new mythology, i.e. the myth of existence (Sein) and ontology. In the 20th century, ontology is no more the science of the existent but that of the existence. According to Heidegger, all previous philosophy forgot about existence, beclouded being. In my essay I aim to show that the accusation of forgetting about being is valid exactly for the new, fashionable philosophies. They constantly refer to "existence", whereas in fact they narrow it down to material and perceptible existent (the matter) or the subjective existent (the human being), i.e., they are concerned with the existent and not existence itself. And this is the root of the tragedy of modern man. With regard to Christian tradition, and thus Thomism-neo-Thomism, ontology had indeed been the science of the existent (ens). However, an in-depth analysis shows that existence (esse) and not the existent stands at the core of St. Thomas's teachings. Hence the accusation of Heidegger is not valid for Aquinas. As a matter of fact, St. Thomas elaborated an extraordinary ontology even in a "post-Heideggerian" sense. St. Thomas himself is going to be our guide in this treatise. We might as well say that Aquinas himself answers the problems of existence of present-day man. One can build an undistorted humanism upon this ontology, which avoids the one-sidedness and immanentism of both materialism and subjectivism. The Christian humanism of the man open to existence, to God, is the unspoilt heritage of Saint Thomas.
  • What is difference? Deleuze and Saint Thomas
    Szerző Teschke, Henning
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 413-422
    Absztrakt The difference between the univocal and the equivocal concept of being marks a firm separation of philosophy from theology. Considering the analogia entis as the core structure of the epistemology of Thomas corresponding to the concept of being as the supreme reference point of his metaphysics, Deleuze misses a positive concept of difference in Thomas, who cannot avoid explaining difference in relation to an external reference or to a transcendent principle. Analogical Being, whenever related to particular beings, can never say what constitutes their individuality. Therefore, Deleuze traces the tradition of ontological univocity, noting it first in Duns Scotus, in order to think about difference in a new way. Only a univocal, anti-hierarchical ontology of immanence is capable of thinking about difference in itself or of providing difference with its own concept.
  • Le thomisme comme "philosophie chrétienne" chez Étienne Gilson et Claude Tresmontant
    Szerző Tat, Alin
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 423-434
    Absztrakt Thomism as "Christian philosophy" wishes to provide an answer to the question of the relation between philosophy and theology in Saint Thomas Aquinas. The expression itself became famous with Etienne Gilson and the interesting debate that gathered some influential philosophers and theologians in the 1930's. For Gilson, Aquinas is the main figure of the Christian philosophy. Aquinas comes after a long tradition of "Christian philosophy", as Claude Tresmontant demonstrated in his works. According to him, the decisive facet of Christian metaphysics and, at the same time, its condition of possibility, is revelation. The questions of Christian philosophy are those of the human intellect that go from revelation to experience and from experience to revelation.
  • Rahner and Lonergan on the commitment to St. Thomas Aquinas
    Szerző Kpalap, Linus
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 435-449
    Absztrakt Rahner and Lonergan bear witness to and emphasize a personal commitment to St. Thomas Aquinas. This personal commitment to St. Thomas is what counts, whether the study of St. Thomas is encouraged by ecclesiastical authority or not, whether Thomistic Studies boom or are considered out of fashion. The personal commitment to St. Thomas has its grounds in the ongoing relevance of St. Thomas thought, and this sets before us the tasks of appropriating his framework, and transposing Aquinas' framework into the self-understanding of the contemporary person as we search for answers and solutions to questions and problems of our time. And the process of transposing Aquinas' framework into the self-understanding of the contemporary person leads to developing the position of Aquinas, thereby arguing a case for what William A. Wallace calls "developmental Thomism."
  • Karl Rahner's Notion of Vorgriff
    Szerző Hoppál, Bulcsú Kál
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 451-459
    Absztrakt The paper will examine the role of the notion of Vorgriff in Rahner's thought. Rahner was convinced that man's nature is being oriented towards God. The meaning of the notion of Vorgriff ('preapprehension') depicts man as a being who lacks something and whose main characteristic is "world-openness''. In which sense can one preapprehend being? Is it apprehended in totality, or partly? Is it an explicit or implicit knowledge about being? If we proceed with this motion of the intellect to infinity, how can one, without further ado, identify infinity with God? In the paper, I shall examine the philosophical roots of Rahner's notion of Vorgriff, as one can find it in Maréchal and Heidegger. In addition, I will show how Rahner reconciles the Kantian challenge with Maréchal and Heidegger. Finally, I will argue that the notion of Vorgriff opens the way of transcendental Thomism towards the Platonic tradition.
  • Models of Thomistic Studies in Contemporary North American Higher Education
    Szerző Erb, Frederick III
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 461-482
    Absztrakt The history of the dialogue between Thomists and the modern world in the past century reveals many shifts and transformations unforeseen yet instigated by Leo XIII, in his 1879 encyclical Aeterni Patris. The evolution of "Thomism" - that Christian philosophy deriving its inspiration from the works of Thomas Aquinas - in the past 125 years has centered on the twin issues of authenticity (conservation) and enculturation (innovation), viz., "How can Thomist philosophers be authentic interpreters of Aquinas while simultaneously engaging mainstream contemporary philosophies by contributing in some meaningful way to the concrete particular concerns of the present age?" With this problematic in mind, the author traces the evolution of Thomism as practiced in North American institutions of higher learning, and discerns five 'models' or approaches of Thomistic studies, namely, exclusivist (triumphalist), formational, conservative (traditionalist), dialogical, and pluralist (inclusivist). The future prospects of Thomism are argued to rely largely on the degree of success to which Catholic educators are able to transmit Aquinas' ethics and spirituality to the postmodern mind.
  • Saint Thomas d'Aquin dans la théologie de Péter Pázmány
    Szerző Szabó, Ferenc S.J.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 483-495
    Absztrakt The Jesuits' Ratio Studiorum ordered to follow St. Thomas's theology. Between 1603-1607, at the University of Graz, Péter Pázmány S.J. gave lectures on St. Thomas's Summa Theologie and commented on its most important issues. St. Thomas thoroughly studied the problem of faith (de Fide) and explained the questions of grace and liberty (de auxiliis) debated by the Jesuits and the Dominicans. He found a fine balance between Banezianism and Molinism through the following main principle: grace intensifies liberty, that is, God does not act on behalf of us but makes us act.
  • Recensiones
    Szerzők Berzeviczy, Klára
    Domokos, György
    Mátyus, Norbert
    W. Somogyi, Judit
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/2
    Kategória Recensiones
    Oldal pp. 499-505
    Recenziók Florian Schaffenrath - Stefan Tilg (Hg.): Achilles in Tirol. Der "bayerische Rummel" 1703 in der "Epitome rerum Oenovallensium" (Commentationes Aenipontanae 35, Tirolensia Latina 5). Universität Innsbruck, Innsbruck, 2004, 126 pp. (Berzeviczy Klára)

    Giampaolo Salvi - Laura Vanelli: Nuova grammatica italiana. Società Editrice il Mulino, Bologna, 2004, 356 pp. (Domokos György)

    Tibor Szabó: Megkezdett öröklét [Eternità iniziata]. Balassi Kiadó, Budapest, 2002, 256 pp. (Mátyus Norbert)

    Gino Bottiglioni: Leggende e tradizioni di Sardegna (Bibliotheca sarda 86). Testi dialettali in grafia fonetica, a cura di Giovanni Lupinu. Nuoro, Ilisso, 2003, 281 pp. (W. Somogyi Judit)