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Tomus 6 Fasciculus 1 • 2004

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Tomus 6 Fasciculus 1 • Aprilis 2004
  • Szerző Lobato, Abelardo
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 7-23
    Absztrakt The present paper exposes the cultural role of Saint Thomas as it was viewed in history. Usually, with the passing of time, the memory of a man and his works weakens and decreases, while in the case of “geniuses”, the opposite appears to happen. Thomas belongs to this latter characterization: the remoter his life, the stronger his presence. There are three decisive factors related to his ascend: his canonization in Avignon by Pope John XXI (1323), the title Doctor Ecclesiae, given by Pope Pius V (1567), and the encyclical letter Aeterni Patris of Pope Leo XIII (1879). These historical events encouraged the study and the comprehensive apprehension of the Thomist doctrine in its true reality and value. At the beginning of the third millennium, the Thomist thought has a more significant cultural presence than previously. The critical edition of his works, their translation into various languages and the extensive number of studies on his thinking have contributed to the continuous discovery of his doctrinal system. Thomas has become the distinguished teacher, the Doctor humanitatis in theology, metaphysics, anthropology, and ethics. His historical role is a positive sign for the culture of the third millennium.
  • Szerző Knasas, John F. X.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 25-37
    Absztrakt I begin by explaining how Aquinas understands the task of the theologian so that theology necessarily includes much philosophy. I then present two philosophical theses from Aquinas and describe their relevance for contemporary discussion to the contrary: first, Aquinas' immediate and direct realism of sensation versus the priority of consciousness since the critical turn and, second, Aquinas' view of the thing's existence as a unique kind of act or attribute of the thing versus the contemporary fact-view of what is meant by the thing's existence.
  • Szerző Lehrberger, James, O. Cist.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 39-49
    Absztrakt Down through the ages different philosophers, whatever their other disagreements, have insisted that the philosophic life is the best human life. As philosophers, they equate happiness with wisdom, the comprehensive account of the whole of reality in light of its first principles and causes. In his Expositio super librum Boethii de trinitate, Thomas Aquinas denies this teaching. He asserts, rather, that philosophy can know with absolute certainty that it cannot attain such wisdom and thus that it cannot be the best life. More precisely, Thomas argues that the limited abstracting power of the agent intellect precludes in principle the very possibility of a quod est knowledge of the First Principle of the whole; human beings must resign themselves to a mere quia knowledge of it at best. On the other hand, the philosophers are right to identify happiness with wisdom; but the very impossibility of attaining that wisdom negates the claims that philosophy provides the best and happy life. Thomas, in short, turns the philosophers own arguments against themselves. He discovers the roots of the philosophers erroneous account of the best life in their now disproved assumption that the human mind is commensurate with reality itself.
  • Szerző Robiglio, Andrea A.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 51-59
    Absztrakt In the late 13th century Latin west, the problem of the proper subject of metaphysics (a legacy of the Avicenna Latinus) became relevant. Two candidates were open at the time: that of the “ens in quantum ens” as the proper subject of metaphysics, and that of the separate and “most noble substances”. This transition allows for a deeper reading of the Condemnation of 1277. The structure of the Condemnation reveals an intriguing commitment on the part of the condemned articles concerning the separate substances (or angels) and the peculiar neoplatonic ìchain of beingî that was the underpinning of their accounts. Peter Olivi argued against the neoplatonic “chain of being” soon after 1277. Even if this polemic is still neglected in the secondary literature on 1277, Olivi's interpretation of the state of the debate reinforces the reading of the Paris Condemnation with regard to neoplatonistic chains of being, and the options available for characterizing the proper subject of metaphysics.
  • Szerző Rokay, Zoltán
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 61-66
    Absztrakt A certain questio, which is entitled De unitate intellectus remained from the Master (St. Albert the Great) and also from his disciple (St. Thomas Aquinas). Both works deal with the question of the particular souls (cf. monopsychismus). The two works differ from each another in many aspects; moreover, there is not any textual similarity. St. Albert explains this question on the basis of potentia and actus, but St. Thomas employs the theory of substantia and accidens. St. Albert makes an important correction regarding this theme: in his opinion, potentia prima is the same as ens possibile in seipso and it is not the materia; moreover, actus primus is the same as ens necesse, and it is not the forma. But the most significant diVerence between the concepts of St. Albert and St. Thomas is that St. Albert has no intentions against the Averroists in his work, in some cases, he even speaks highly of them. Therefore the question of unitas intellectus was independent from the Averroists, and it can be an topical question, too.
  • Szerző Nejeschleba, Tomaš
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 67-78
    Absztrakt This paper deals with the differences between the concept of the agent intellect in Thomas Aquinas and in the early Franciscan school with a focus on St. Bonaventure.While according to Aquinas the agent intellect is the faculty of the human soul, in the thought of Alexander of Hales, John of La Rochelle and St. Bonaventure it has a double or even a triple meaning. In the Franciscan Masters the agent intellect is simultaneously considered as a faculty of the human soul but also as God himself and in John of La Rochelle as an angelic intelligence, too. This comparison could be useful in a new interpretation of the Condemnation of 1277 where the proposition on the separate agent intellect is also considered. It seems that the condemnation of this proposition 118 is in accord with the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas. What is actually being condemned here is the doctrine, partially held by the Franciscan friars, who are traditionally considered as initiators of the Condemnation.
  • Szerző Vyšniauskas, Gintautas
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 79-84
    Absztrakt Predicating the universal properties of things to God we inevitably cast the net of logical intentions on Him. Only later can we disentangle Him from it by means of additional thinking. Therefore, it is probable that Aquinas says “Deus autem ponitur primum principium, non materiale, sed in genere causae efficientis” (S.T. I, 4, 1 in c.) just because here he looks at the infinite perfection of God through the limited perfection of things and wants to remind us that in such a perspective God is seen quasi in the genus. It is very important that Aquinas does not say, “Deus est in genere”, but: “Deus ponitur in genere” (emphasis mine). The neglecting of this diVerence between the est and the ponitur and interpreting the latter as if it were the former compels the translators form Latin to substitute genus by other terms. But these substitutions are doubtful.
  • Szerző Quinn, Patrick
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 85-93
    Absztrakt St. Thomas's views on the human soul and mind are shaped by Platonic as well as Aristotelian influences. His account of the human soul as the substantial principle and form of human life quickly becomes translated into a definition of the soul as an intelligent substance that exists on the boundary line of bodily and non-bodily substances as though it were on the horizon of time and eternity, according to Summa contra Gentiles, Book 11, Chapter 81. The human being as a whole is also described in this way in Summa Theologica 1.77.2. This “boundary” image of the human being allows St. Thomas in Summa Theologica 1.89.1 to account for how knowledge can occur in the absence of the body after death. It also enables Aquinas to explain in other texts how religious ecstasy can occur in life before death in that the sensory powers are supernaturally suspended to free the mind to see God. Thus non-bodily based knowledge before or after death with all the important implications involved are philosophically accounted for, at least up to a point, by Platonism. This is not to deny Aquinas's Aristotelianism but simply to note the existential importance of Platonic insights in his thinking also, especially when St. Thomas attempts to philosophically present his views on how knowledge occurs in human beings in the absence of the senses.
  • Szerző Matula, Jozef
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 95-107
    Absztrakt The article deals with Aquinas' relation to Avempace's theory of intellect, especially with his criticism of the conception of agent intellect as presented by Avempace. The author examines the parts of Aquinas' works where he rejects Avempace's theory of coniunctio as a union with the divine realm and Avempace's identification of imagination with intellect. The criticism is founded on the background of Aquinas' discussion with Averroism. The second part of the article deals with Aquinas' criticism of Avempace's theory of speculative sciences, which consist of he problem whether the ultimate happiness of man is to understand the separate substances. Aquinas criticizes the theory according to which through the pursuit of the speculative sciences man comes to the understanding of separate substances from the sensible things. Aquinas is very sceptical of this opinion and he strictly follows Aristotle's emphasis on senses and phantasms. The only things a human being can know in the speculative sciences are those that are grounded within the range of naturally known principles. The author shows the metaphysical presuppositions of Aquinas and Avempace which are momentous for the understanding of the diVerent interpretations of Aristotle.
  • Szerző Gotia, Andrei
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 109-116
    Absztrakt In this article, the author analyzes closely the most famous Eucharistic hymn written by St. Aquinas, Adoro Te devote, in the light of passages from the Summa Theologiae which treat the Holy Eucharist. In looking at Fra Angelico's La Crocefissione, which contains one of the renowned portraits of St. Thomas, the author finds similarities with the hymn.
  • Szerző Riedenauer, Markus
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 117-133
    Absztrakt Aquinas' ethical theory contains two basic approaches, Aristotelian virtue ethics, and the law. How is their relationship to be understood? Are there genuinely philosophical ethics? We analyse Aquinas' theories of appetite (§I ) and emotions (§II ), examine their relevance for ethics and their integration into his account of natural law(§III ). Three central formulations give the focus of each part: I. bonum nominat id in quod tendit appetitus - appetitions create motivational relations to the good, the fundamental practical dispositions. II. Passiones appetitus indicatores ad bonum - the emotions are inclinations to the good, thus providing the primary evaluation of situations. Their basic objectivity becomes clearer in Aquinas' ordering of the passions. III. Secundum ordinem inclinationum naturalium est ordo praeceptorum legis naturae - natural law theory, properly understood, reveals the autonomy of practical reasoning and its independence from metaphysical interpretation exactly because of the theory of desire. The highest praeceptum contains desire insofar as it names the structure of acting as acting which is defined by its relation to something good as good. In my interpretation, neither the virtues nor the law nor the connection of both parts of Aquinas' ethical theory can be understood without desire, passiones, appetitus naturalis.
  • Szerző Erb, Heather M.
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 135-159
    Absztrakt Various mystical traditions and much of modern scholarship sever the connection between mysticism and metaphysical claims. For Aquinas, differing ontological claims both generate and correlate logically to diverse mystical claims, under the aegis of one analogous notion of truth. In this way, Aquinas' mystical theology offers a metaphysics of mystical union, according to which a thing's nobility of being corresponds to its degree of union with God. Aquinas' metaphysical positions both define and circumscribe his interpretation of religious experience. This examines the points of contact between metaphysics andmysticism. Second, it takes the metaphysical issue of monism versus pluralism as a locus for intersecting truth claims in metaphysics and mysticism. Third, examines the context, formulation and solution to the problem of the "one and the many" within Aquinas' metaphysics, including its relevance for his mystical theology. Fourth, it examines a metaphysical paradox taken from the domain of the intellect, and show how it stands at the threshold of mystical experience for Aquinas.
  • Szerző Tarabochia Canavero, Alessandra
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 161-177
    Absztrakt The theme of light is not central in Aquinas' thought. He speaks about it when the opportunity arises, especially when he is concerned with the creation of the world and vision. When he is concerned with light, Thomas appears as the magister, Aristotle's follower, an alert reader of the sacra pagina and of the sancti's works. He clearly adheres to the physics and cosmology of Aristotle and solves the old equivocation according to which light is part both of the sensible and intelligible and divine: proprie light is the one, and the only one, with the help of which we can see through they eyes of our body. Light is the medium through which the sun and the other heavenly bodies influence our world, it is connected to the natural warmth and favours of life. It is neither a body nor a form or substance or a substantial form, but it is the qualitas activa of the sun and of the other self-shining bodies. But as light has a virtus manifestativa, we can speak of light even metaphorice in all the cases in which we have a form of sight or knowledge. For that Thomas can write: "Divina sapienta lux dicitur, prout in puro actu cognitionis consistit."
  • Szerző Blackwell, Constance
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 179-188
    Absztrakt Thomas Aquinas is usually studied as a metaphysician, this is not the reading given to him by three Renaissance philosophers. At the turn of the sixteenth century there were at least two schools of Thomists, one influenced by Avicenna and Scotus, and the other influenced by Averroes, a reading of Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas himself. The discussion below traces how the interpretation of Thomas' De ente et essentia was changed from being a text for metaphysics to one used for physics. One of the meanings of ens - being - was as a term that was coterminous with the object. As a result, the debate over the first thing thought or the De primo cognito debate centered around the meaning for the term ens, the following essay demonstrates how it moved from metaphysics to physics.
  • Szerző Almási, Zsolt
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 189-198
    Absztrakt The present paper aims at reading a famous passage on the freedom of choice from Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's Oratio in the light that St. Thomas of Aquinas' De ente et essentia might cast upon it so as to make room for a fresh reading of the Oratio. This attempt is significant, because as far as the critical tradition is concerned the part of Pico's work is entrapped in two extreme views: the one claims that it is a serious philosophical statement, while the other refuting this view notes that it can only be a rhetorical introduction to the main theme of the Oratio. Showing the disadvantages of these views, and thus refuting them, I will propose a more accommodating position for the interpretation of the passage, which consists in reading it as a modification of Aquinas' logico-ontological scheme with the objective to show how moral philosophy may help one see the ethical aspect of his life in greater depth.
  • Szerző Dagron, Tristan
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 199-213
    Absztrakt In his De fato, written in 1520, Pomponazzi examines Thomas Aquinas's doctrine of predestination. From his point of view, Thomas's solution to the traditional conflict between divine science and human liberty is twofold: it mixes philosophy and theology, thereby transforming the revealed doctrine as well as that of philosophical rationality. The analysis of the Thomistic position is therefore an opportunity to define the specificity of the theological discourse from a critical point of view.
  • Szerző Blum, Paul Richard
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Artes
    Oldal pp. 215-226
    Absztrakt Renaissance humanists tended to disregard medieval scholasticism. But most of humanist anti-scholasticism was directed against late medieval exaggerations in the areas of conceptualism and nominalism. Therefore, it is interesting to find out whether these humanists had a precise and justified view of medieval philosophers and theologians, and especially of Thomas Aquinas. Two writings of humanists, which expressly deal with Aquinas, namely the Encomium S. Thomae Aquinatis by Lorenzo Valla (1457) and the Opus aureum in Thomistas (1490s) by Johannes Baptista Spagnoli Matnovano give witness of the humanist philosophical approach to the saint and teacher of the Church. A look at these two treatises discloses some basic features of humanist thought, and ex negativo of the importance and specific value of Thomas Aquinas in the post-medieval culture. They also show samples of how monopolizing one authority might endanger its very acceptance.
  • Szerző Bors, Edit
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Linguistica
    Oldal pp. 229-240
    Absztrakt The genre of the intimate diary is a monophonic narration par excellence; nevertheless, it will be shown that even personal genres are not exempt from the presence of others. The purpose of the paper is to examine the occurrence of polyphonic marks based on some extract of young ladies' diaries collected and published by Lejeune. The analysis reaches the conclusion that others' words appear in the form of scriptural marks like quotation marks and metalinguistic comments which make it possible for the diarists to use and refuse at the same time any discourse borrowed from their social surroundings.
  • Szerző Loureda Lamas, Óscar
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Linguistica
    Oldal pp. 241-253
    Absztrakt There is a wealth of bibliographic material available to the researcher who intends to understand the diVerent models of linguistic analysis. By contrast, far fewer pages have been devoted to the examination of the linguistic ideas implicit in languages, that is to say, to the investigation of the linguistic culture of a community. By means of linguistic cultural expression one can distinguish at least two difeerent realities: on the one hand, the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the factors at play in the act of speaking and which in some manner determine it, and, on the other, the notions of language and speaking manifested by distinct languages in their difeerences. My article is concerned with this last element of cultural linguistics. Above all, I am interested in the communal evaluations which help each historical collective to identify their linguistic reality, inasmuch as they reveal a prescientific and intuitive conscience which does not respond to the criteria of any science, though they are not delimitations which seek to study the nature of this reality in detail. This does not mean, however, that they are therefore absurd or unnecessary; in reality they appear daily in the behaviour of the speakers of the language (including that of linguists).
  • Szerző Majorossy, Imre Gábor
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Linguistica
    Oldal pp. 255-273
    Absztrakt The following study shows metaphorical meanings of a verb (païr) that comes from the religious tradition. Two texts will be presented: a poem of Raimbaut d'Aurenga and an occitan short story. Both speak about love and both use païr in a somewhat unusual way. In the poem, païr expresses love of the Domna; in the short story, after their marriage, lovers take new names and the wife has one that contains païr. The study tries to reveal a possible literary relationship between semantic fields of païr and aimer.
  • Szerző Petrovszki Lajszki, Brigitta
    Füzet Vol. VI/2004/1
    Kategória Linguistica
    Oldal pp. 275-283
    Absztrakt In her paper, the author presents results of her examination on profession names in the Sardinian language. This corpus prepared by the author and organised in cards shows the etymological composition and word formation of the names of professions.
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