Centre et Périphérie / Centro e Periferia / Centro y Periféria
Le présent numéro de Verbum propose à ses lecteurs un questionnement sur la problématique du centre et de la périphérie à travers les images (photographie), les genres (philosophie et littérature, monologue infini, enfant et littérature), les pays (voyage), les époques (Moyen Age, Lumières, romantisme) et les langues (espagnol, italien, français).
Puisque tout discours sur le monde s'articule autour de cette opposition, les questions sur l'espace, sur le dehors et le dedans, sur le centre et la périphérie tendent à envahir le champ de la conscience commune, ainsi dédramatisant l'universelle temporalité : tout vivant a quelque part son espace que le temps traverse. L'espace quotidiennement vécu est toujours réversible, le temps ne l'est pas, donc il inquiète. Il n'existe d'espace réel que celui qu'on parcourt. L'étendue au sein de laquelle l'homme se situe devient dense, vide ou invite à l'action, au voyage. Mais au-delà de l'espace tout s'ouvre sur l'infini.
C'est autour de cet espace-là, à la fois centre et périphérie, que fonctionnent l'imagination humaine et la fonction fantasmatique de la langue. Elles donnent forme à l'élévation, à l'abaissement, à la surface, à la profondeur, à la répétition et au retour. Ces images de l'espace deviennent les bases des mythes collectifs et personnels de l'identité. L'immensité de la plaine, des montagnes et de l'Océan évoque les mêmes images : la figure de l'homme au centre du monde.
L'existence de l'homme qui veut sortir de l'enfermement de son être tend toujours vers l'extérieur, mais on ne sait pas si l'on court vers le centre ou l'on s'évade. L'orientation de l'existence implique alors un centre dont le point de départ est le regard de l'homme. Le centre n'est pourtant pas un point, il est un lieu plus ou moins étendu, par rapport auquel se définissent périphérie et décentrement.
Rédactrice en chef
Tomus 12 Fasciculus 1 • Junius 2010
- Les yeux sont faits pour voir & pour pleurer — La photographie entre Budapest, Prague & Berlin
Author Soulages, François Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.1 Pages pp. 7-26 Keywords unconsciousness, esthetics, photography, politics, bodies Abstract Press photographers and politicians show us suffering bodies whose event-like visibility make us forget the invisibility of every day life, for the reality of day-to-day life is difficult to notice. We can accept tragedy more easily if heroes participate in it. A life lived in a dictatorship is very long, even if it is short for a historian who deals with long time periods, and it is impossible to capture for a press photographer. This paper deals with the questions that photographers have to face: what is it that they have to capture to be able to uncover the essence of the system? What bodies do they need to photograph? Are they bodies at all?
- Francesco Petrarca travelling and writing to Prague's court
Author Špička, Jiří Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.2 Pages pp. 27-40 Keywords Petrarca, Jan ze St?edy, Prague, humanism, epistolography Abstract This paper deals with the cultural and political contacts between Francesco Petrarca and the imperial court in Prague. Leaving aside the political motivation of the epistolary exchange between Petrarca and the Emperor Charles IV, we firstly focus on the history of Petrarca's journey(s) to Prague as a curious experience in his life, and secondly on the nature of the "friendship" between Petrarca and the imperial chancellor Jan ze St?edy, which we interpret as an obstinate and idle endeavour of self-promotion.
- Purchotius Græcus I: Vikentios Damodos' Concise ethics
Author Demetracopoulos, John A. Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.3 Pages pp. 41-67 Keywords Edmond Pourchot, Thomistic Ethics, Vikentios Damodos, Modern Greek Enlightenment, translation activity Abstract Most of the writings produced during the 18th century in one of the regions peripheral to the centers of philosophical, theological, and scientific development in Europe, namely, Greece, were but translations or adaptations of various works written in Latin, French, Italian, German, or English. Even some of the texts signed by their authors as produced by themselves are translations or adaptations, too. This is the case with most, if not all, of the philosophical (and theological) writings of Vikentios Damodos (1700–1754), a private teacher of Philosophy in Kefallenia (Ionian Islands, Greece), who had studied in Venice and Padova. His Concise Ethics, which forms part of his huge Concise Philosophy, is just a selective translation or adaptation (enriched only by few trivially didactic or confessional comments) of passages from the respective volume (Ethics) of Edmond Pourchot's (1651–1734) Institutiones philosophicæ as well as from the homonymous part (Compendium Ethicæ) of Vol. V (Exercitationes Scholasticæ) of the same textbook. Damodos, by plagiarizing Pourchot, transmitted to Greece a potentially progressive eclectic philo-Cartesianist Christian philosophy taught at the time in France, Italy, Ukrainia and elsewhere.
- La Tabula Aurea
Author Cselényi, István Gábor Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Filologia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.4 Pages pp. 71-83 Keywords thomisme, esse, ens, participle, infinitive Abstract Scientists of our time have the advantages ofmodern technology such as computers. In a matter of minutes you can find an author, a work or any expression. In the past there were only lexicons and concordances available for this purpose. One of the early encyclopedic studies on St. Thomas Aquinas's life-achievement is the Tabula Aurea (‘Golden Table'), which was written in Latin by Pietro Bergamo in 1473, 200 years after Thomas Aquinas's death. The Tabula not only lists every expression in St. Thomas's works, it also states how often, where, and in what context they appear. This way we get a wholesome overview of Aquinas's philosophy and theology. In this study I strive to present the Tabula, both its author and the work itself. Furthermore, through focusing on a selected example, the modern issue of being (ens) and "to be" (esse), I aim to prove that Bergamo and even Aquinas, whose message is so humbly reviewed by the Tabula, were very modern, well ahead of their times. This example is also a significant segment of Romanistics, the career history of an infinitive (esse) and a participle (ens).
- Diderot et la colonisation. À propos du "Supplément au Voyage de Bougainville"
Author Brix, Michel Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Filologia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.5 Pages pp. 85-98 Keywords Diderot, Bougainville, travel, colonialism Abstract In the Supplément au Voyage de Bougainville (‘Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage'), Diderot develops the idea of the problem of travelling and colonizing, which the scholars misunderstood. The main point does not focus on the conflict, or the competition, between two civilization patterns — the so-called "primitivism" of Tahiti and the advanced society of Europe. Regarding the anti-colonialist impact, Supplément goes far beyond a simple stand: Diderot indeed anticipates the disastrous consequences (of which we are very aware today) of the travels made by Europeans to the more distant regions of the world from the 15th century.
- J.-K. Huysmans : un monologue qui n'en finit pas
Author Sadkowska-Fidala, Agata Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Filologia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.6 Pages pp. 99-109 Keywords internal monologue, self-centering, artificiality, Joris-Karl Huysmans Abstract In Huysmans' novels, one may notice that evolution of the composition leads to the rejection of the traditional model of writing. The novel's action gradually disappears and consequently the dialogues are being transformed into internal monologues. The exchange of artificial and didactic ideas between the characters is used to replace the traditional conversation. The aim is to create the world in which the authors' fascinations are transmitted from one character to another reflecting the whole complexity of Huysmans adoration for art, literature, food, etc. These monodialogues become a space where the author and its work unites to form a new quality of art.
- Al borde del universo hueco Salvador Elizondo: "En la playa"
Author Révész, Enkratisz Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Filologia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.7 Pages pp. 111-118 Keywords Elizondo, short stories, enigma, frustration, periphery Abstract The aim of this paper is to reveal — through the analysis of one of the early short stories of Salvador Elizondo, "En la playa" — some of the most important features that already present in these early works of the Mexican writer and which recur obsessively later, displaying an unusual, rather idiosyncratic and dark universe. We argue that due to their outstanding literary value, the works of the writer should deserve wider appreciation. Also, with the help of this particular work, we would like to call attention to the early short stories of Elizondo, which, we think, have not received enough critical attention in the shadow of the author's two novels, as well as later texts focusing on the problem areas of the writing process.
- Centro e periferia nella sintassi dell'infinito italiano e latino
Author Szilágyi, Imre Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Linguistica DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.8 Pages pp. 121-140 Keywords control, subject, raising, nominal features, verbal features Abstract In the present paper we compare the infinitive structures of Modern Italian and Classical Latin, considering the results of modern linguistics and the dichotomy of centre and periphery. We demonstrate that whereas in modern Italian control structures dominate, in Latin this role is played by the accusative with infinitive. However, the phenomenon of control can be observed in Latin as well even though to a much less extent and under stronger limitations than in Italian. Raising structures have an important role in both languages: their most conspicuous manifestation in Latin is the nominative with infinitive. Another difference between these two languages is that whereas in Italian the infinitive structures show a greater variety (beyond the above mentioned ones there are causative, articled infinitive structures and so on), in Latin practically three structures (accusative with infinitive, nominative with infinitive and control structure) cover the whole range of infinitive structures.
- Algunas características aspectuales de los verbos de percepción física en español: ver frente a mirar
Author Devís Márquez, P. Pablo Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Linguistica DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.9 Pages pp. 141-156 Keywords Spanish, verbs of sensorial perception, Aktionsart, aspect, syntax Abstract The aim of this paper is to comment on some particular aspectual characteristics of the verbs of sensorial perception in Present-Day Spanish and the differences of syntactic behaviour that these characteristics suppose. The interrelation between aspectual information and syntax, just as it happens with other types of verbs, seems evident. In the particular case of the pair ver-mirar, we propose that aspectual characteristics do not only entail diversity of syntactic structures but also lexical differences.
- El nexo copulativo en húngaro y en español
Author Rózsavári, Nóra Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Linguistica DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.10 Pages pp. 157-163 Keywords copula, classification, identification, permanent quality, inherent quality Abstract The Hungarian verb van ‘to be' may be rendered in Spanish by two verbs: ser and estar. The translation of van depends on the structure in which these two verbs appear. When the copula is followed by a noun, pronoun or the preposition de and a noun, there is an obligatory use of ser. It is used without a preposition to identify or to classify. When it classifies, it can take the preposition de. Estar always takes a preposition. It may indicate the function performed by the subject or it may indicate various other things depending on the preposition. When the verb is followed by an adjective, ser expresses a permanent or inherent quality, estar expresses a quality which is neither permanent nor inherent. Sometimes both verbs may be used with the same adjective, but there is a change of meaning.
- "Le temps des ténèbres". La naissance de l'image négative du Moyen Age
Author Hámori Nagy, Zsuzsanna Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.11 Pages pp. 167-183 Keywords Middle Ages, The Dark Ages, Bonaventure, humanism Abstract The Dark Ages is the term popularly applied to describe the period of the Middle Ages. The notion is thought to originate from the sonnets of Petrarch, but it was already used by Saint Bonaventure in the 13th century. Since both authors used the term medium tempus of their tripartition of time to underline the rupture between near and ancient past, its negative connotations became well known to the public and entered historiography through Italian humanism. German humanists, on the other hand, had tried hard to show continuity between the Roman and the Holy Roman Empires in order to support the idea of Translatio imperii Romani a Graecis ad Germanos. However, their efforts had diminished during the new era of reformation which also emphasized the idea of rupture.
- Leçon de courage - à la frontière de la littérature et de la philosophie
Author Marsó, Paula Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.12 Pages pp. 185-195 Keywords Rousseau, fiction, self-knowledge, philosophy, literature Abstract From the beginning of his career in The First Discourse to the end in Reveries of the Solitary Walker, Rousseau makes it clear that the problem of self-knowledge is a central theme in his writings. How is self-knowledge possible? Can it be a valid subject of enquiry for philosophy or literature? How can autobiography be an authentic instrument between philosophy and fiction?
- L'enfant et sa littérature dans la société française
Authors Kovács, Marietta
Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.13 Pages pp. 197-217 Keywords typology, children, youth, literature, illustrators, specialized publishers Abstract The aim of this paper is to give a systematic overview of the representatives and works of French children and youth literature based on a possible typology set up by the authors. The first section of the study intends to give a definition of children and youth literature, describing the selection criteria of the works which can be included in this category, while the second section of the study briefly outlines the history of French children and youth literature. Publishers have a significant role in reaching the target audience as well as in wide diffusion, which is described in the third section. The fourth section aims to briefly introduce the works of classic and modern authors, picture-book writers and illustrators who are the most well-known in Hungary. In the conclusion, the dimensional changes of the French children and youth literature are highlighted as well as its development into a modern scholarly field providing potential research topics in the future.
Authors Benda, Mihály
Gecse, Mária Veronika
Issue Vol. XII/2010/1 Category Recensiones DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.1.14 Pages pp. 221-251 Reviews Appunti su due recenti volumi dedicati a Angelo Colocci (Giuseppe Frasso)
Marco Mezzadri: I ferri del mestiere (Auto)formazione per l'insegnante di lingua. ed. Guerra, Perugia, 2003, 382 pp. (Gecse Mária Veronika)
Giovanna Bellati : Théophile Gautier journaliste à La Presse : point de vue sur une esthétique théâtrale. L'Harmattan, Paris & Torino, 2008, 264 pp. (Benda Mihály)
Anna Sőrés : Typologie et linguistique contrastive. Théories et applications dans la comparaison des langues. Coll. Études contrastives, vol. 9. Peter Lang, Bern, 2008, 212 pp. (Bors Edit)