Migration, émigration, immigration – migración, emigración, inmigración – migrazione, emigrazione, immigrazione
En cualquier ámbito geográfico, la literatura del exilio y de las migraciones es una característica de la literatura del siglo XX, y de principios del siglo XXI. La ficción narrativa a menudo se vuelve medida y testimonio de fenómenos y acontecimientos que afectan al ser humano desde tiempos remotos, y paralelamente es precursora de cambios, anunciadora de nuevas realidades, aunque a veces sólo sea mediante la propia trayectoria de los escritores que, por su adscripción a más de una lengua, más de un espacio, más de cultura, anticipa un renuevo en la percepción de lo que es una literatura nacional, y por ende, una identidad nacional, abriendo así caminos de posibles mestizajes. La literatura indaga e investiga así el universo social, la complejidad del mundo, y desvela sus posibles andaduras.
No cabe duda de la cada vez más importante presencia del fenómeno migratorio en la literatura, contraponiéndolo así a su casi total invisibilidad en la Historia. No por ello está ausente del presente número que ofrece una aproximación a algunas cuestiones sociales y políticas. Por otra parte, los textos literarios aquí analizados en varios artículos señalan vivencias y acontecimientos, viajes y asentamientos, dudas y zozobras, mestizajes y convergencias, que esbozan las complejas peregrinaciones que llevan a deambular no sólo por territorios geográficos, lingüísticos y culturales extraños, sino también por las propias fronteras interiores. Destaca casi siempre que este peregrinar es marcadamente iniciático.
Pese a la disparidad de autores, épocas y países analizados aquí, los hechos convergen y dibujan una memoria sin fronteras, un viaje por los imaginarios, a través de las mutuas visiones estereotipadas del Otro. Al mismo tiempo configura el lento caminar de la humanidad hacia un mestizaje no exento de dificultades, renuncias, ausencias e incertidumbres, un mestizaje que no es una totalidad homogénea y estable, sino una identidad móvil, en tránsito.
Tomus 10 Fasciculus 1 • Junius 2008
- Les Sans-État et les Droits de L'homme
Author Olay, Csaba Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.1 Pages pp. 7-13 Keywords Hannah Arendt, human rights, citizenship, totalitarianism, refugees Abstract The paper investigates Arendt's criticism of human rights, taking as a point of departure her analysis of totalitarianism. In analyzing the political catastrophe of the 20th century, she describes, among others, the situation of stateless-people, i.e., the refugees of the 1930s and 1940s, who had lost any citizenship. I delineate her theory of total domination and totalitarianism, and I put her considerations on human rights in this context. The paper discusses Arendt's basic idea that human rights make no sense without an instance that is able and willing to defend those rights.
- Translated trauma, translated lives: Hungarian women Holocaust survivors in emigration
Author Vasvári, Louise O. Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.2 Pages pp. 15-34 Keywords Hungarian Holocaust survivors, gender and Holocaust, life writing and Holocaust, translated trauma Abstract This study is part of a larger project to integrate into Holocaust discourses the voices of women survivors, which can provide valuable insights both for Holocaust studies and gender studies. I first briefly review some of the main issues relating to the need to study female Holocaust (life) writing, in order to offer a theoretical frame for the main focus of my study: a historical introduction to "literaried" testimonies of some two dozen Hungarian emigrant women, written over a span of over half a century. I will be highlighting translation and gender issues, as well as the variety of narrative techniques the authors utilize. None of the women I study published in Hungarian, even as in some cases they had original contemporary diaries or earlier drafts in that language. Hence, the first part of my title means to focus on the additional complicating issues of self translation of traumatic events by survivors who live in emigration.
- La Comunidad Piamontesa de Argentina
Author Giolitto, Marco Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Artes DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.3 Pages pp. 35-48 Keywords Piedmontese, Argentina, migration, Gallo-Italian dialect, sociolinguistics Abstract Like many other Romance languages, Piedmontese (a Gallo-Italian dialect from northern Italy) is spoken in Argentina. A wave of immigration touched Argentina between 1875 and 1914, between the depression of the last decades of the 19th century and World War I. The dominant language of the region, "Pampa Gringa", or the dominant foreign language of the area, was, until the 1950s, Piedmontese. It was only after the 1950s that Spanish took hold. Today it is practically the only spoken language, except in a few areas where the older generation continues to speak Piedmontese. The present paper is the result of a long investigation into this community, which included over 300 interviews with the descendants of the original immigrants. The paper has two objectives: to reconstruct the linguistic customs of the Piedmontese from the time of their arrival in Argentina up to today, and to collect the impressions and attitudes that their descendants have towards Piedmontese, as well as their relation to Castilian Spanish.
- "Excitata Est Ea Natio Ante Paucos Annos Singulari et Eleganti Ingenio Matthiae Regis": Il Viaggio Del Volterrano in Ungheria
Author Budetta, Enrica Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Critica DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.4 Pages pp. 51-66 Keywords trip, Hungary, Raffaele Maffei, Giovanni d'Aragona, Matthias Corvinus, Florio Banfi Abstract During the winter of 1479–1480, Pope Sixtus IV determined that humanist Raffaele Maffei from Volterra (1451–1522) should join the cardinal Giovanni d'Aragona, who had been sent as papal legate to Matthias Corvinus's court. This paper illustrates Maffei's impressions of his trip, as they emerge in a published but little known letter addressed to his friend Niccolò Lisci, as well as in the eighth book of his famous encyclopedia, the Commentarii Urbani. Although the Hungarians' bellicose nature and their Spartan habits impressed the Italian humanist, Maffei was truly amazed by the incredible cultural flourishing of the Corvinian court.
- Questioni di Tempo, Narrativa e Identità Nei Romanzi di Alessandro Baricco Novecento e Seta
Author Horváth, Kornélia Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Critica DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.5 Pages pp. 67-75 Keywords novel, Alessandro Baricco, time, narration, identity Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Alessandro Baricco's two novels, Novecento and Seta, from various perspectives. The problem of time, the forms of narration, the function of names and finally the problems of identity provide the main points of view of the analysis, which is partly based on some theoretical thoughts of Michail Bachtin and Paul Ricoeur.
- La Escritura de la Lengua Judeo-Española
Author Czöndör, Klára Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Linguistica DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.6 Pages pp. 79-97 Keywords Sephardic Jews, Judeo-Spanish, Hebrew, writing systems, Spain Abstract This paper discusses the writing system of the Sephardic Jews, who were expelled from the Iberian peninsula in 1492. After a short description of the history of the Spanish Jews, the Jewish languages are described in general, then the Judeo-Spanish language in particular. In connection with the writing systemof the language under discussion, a detailed description is provided of the varieties that use Hebrew characters when writing in Spanish, followed by an account of the systems that came into existence following the introduction of the writing system based on Latin letters. Related to the orthography of the Judeo-Spanish language, the pros and cons of the writing system using diacritics and the "Aki Yerushalayim system" are discussed. Issues such as the maintenance of the language and its standardization are also touched upon.
- Dialetti Italiani "Esportati" Nell'Ottocento TRA Europa Meridionale e Mediterraneo (Per una Mappatura delle Sopravvivenze Comunitarie e delle Eredità)
Author Toso, Fiorenzo Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Linguistica DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.7 Pages pp. 99-120 Keywords emigration, Italian dialects abroad, linguistic community, linguistic minority, language contact Abstract This paper examines the historical events and the linguistic consequences of a number of migratory movements from Italy to Southern European and Mediterranean countries between the end of the 17th century and the first few decades of the 18th century. Such directions and destinations are lesser known than those migrations generally associated "historically" with Italian emigration (North and South America, and, more recently, Northern Europe and Australia); nevertheless, the linguistic heritage of such movements is still very much alive or else has become extinct in only very recent times. Those who migrated from Veneto and Trentino to the Balcans, from Puglia to Crimea, the Sicilians who emigrated to Tunisia, the Piedmontese who went to province, the Ligurians who moved to various locations from Gibraltar to the Black Sea, all gave birth to small linguistic communities, to real dialectal koinès, to important phenomena of mixing codes and lexical borrowing from the local languages. An overall picture will be built up in order to evaluate the importance of these phenomena and to posit a series of hypotheses of a sociolinguistic and political nature.
- Le Latium et ses héros mythiques errants dans l'imaginaire des Italiens d'Afrique du Nord: la figure d'Elpénor dans l'oeuvre d'Adrien Salmieri
Author Loreti, M. Alessio Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.8 Pages pp. 123-137 Keywords Latium, Italian Emigration, Tunisia, Latin mythology, Roman Africa Abstract Since antiquity Latium constitutes a legendary refuge for the lost traveler (Ulysses), the persecuted being (Saturn) and the exiled warrior (Aeneas). On the other side of the Mediterranean, North Africa, between the end of 19th century and the first half of 20th century, was also a shelter for many expatriates, in particular Italian immigrants. In the aftermath of decolonization, after a breaking of a few generations and a dramatic colonial experience, Latium represents the privileged place of repatriation for many Italians. This article focuses on Latiumin the imaginary of Tunisian-born Italians and on literarymyths that are set in Southern Latium. In the last part it analyses the figure of Elpenor - the Odyssey's helmsman who died at Circe's palace - in the work of Adrien Salmieri (1929-).
- Trivulziana COD. N. 1458: A new testimony of the "Landus report"
Author Tóth, Gábor Mihály Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.9 Pages pp. 139-158 Keywords Matthias Corvinus, Wladislaus II, Landus report, Trivulziana Cod. N. 1458, historiography Abstract The Trivulziana Cod. N. 1458 is a variant of the dispatch, known as the "Landus report" in the Hungarian historiography. This report narrates the history of Hungary from the death of Louis the Great up to the peace between Matthias Corvinus and Frederick III in 1463. However, the codex of the Trivulziana Library also contains a new closing section, which narrates the events following the death of Matthias. In this paper, I examine two questions: (a) was this closing section written by the same person as the so-called Landus report?; (b) does this closing section provide us new pieces of information concerning the history of Hungary? In addition to this, I give a general account of the content of the dispatch and review its editions and its manuscript tradition. Moreover, I outline its reception in the Hungarian historiography. Finally, in the Appendix I give the transcription of the closing section of the manuscript as well as another unpublished part of the manuscript, although the examination of this will be the subject of further studies.
- L'esilio Volontario di Carlo Goldoni a Parigi
Author Török, Tamara Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.10 Pages pp. 159-169 Keywords Goldoni, Italian Theatre, Paris, Commedia dell'Arte, realistic comedy Abstract At the peak of his career and after some unbearable literary conflicts, Carlo Goldoni accepts the invitation of the Théâtre Italien ('Italian Theatre') in Paris and leaves Venice. Una delle ultime sere del Carnovale ('One of the Last Nights of the Carnival') is the comedy with which he says goodbye to his Venice audience, and in the form of an allegory, entering the comedy behind its protagonist, Anzoletto, he speaks about his professional reasons to leave Venice. This parallelism between Anzoletto and Goldoni is analyzed through the latest theatrical version of this comedy that was staged at the Katona Theatre in Budapest.
- Des Promenades Parisiennes D'un Immigré Hongrois ou Les Descriptions de Paris de Gyula Illyés
Author Benda, Mihály Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.11 Pages pp. 171-188 Keywords flâneur, Gyula Illyés, description of town, influence of surrealism, Paris Abstract Gyula Illyés, Hungarian poet, fiction writer, essayist and dramatist, emigrated to Paris after the fall of the Hungarian Republic in 1919. There, he came into contact with the working class movement as well as with surrealistic circles. Strongly influenced by modern French writing, Illyés nevertheless adopted realism in his novels. He reflects upon his emigration times in Paris in his novel, Hunok Párisban [Huns in Paris]. The present paper focuses on the following main issues in relation to this novel: types of description, panoramic views, walks, atmosphere of certain districts, the stylistic characteristics of the descriptive sequences. Illyés's description of Paris is a classic example of a type of urban literature that was pioneered in Paris of the 1840s, and was used to celebrate the diversity and dynamismof themodern city. At the center of his description was the figure of the flâneur, or urban stroller, who embodied and represented the quintessential qualities of urban modernity.
- La France de Makine: La France en Migration
Author Harmath, Erzsébet Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.12 Pages pp. 189-198 Keywords essay rhizome, Andrei Makine, migration, immigration, emigration Abstract Pointing to various movements of individuals, the theme of migration-immigration-émigration 'migration-immigration-emigration' stimulates heterogeneous readings. The word migration, deriving from Latin migratio, meaning 'displacement from one country to another, to settle'. Human migration refers to the displacement of the place of life of the individual. The prefixes im- and é- are indicative of disparate movements. I will uncover the meaning of these three words, migration-immigration-emigration. I will analyze the shape of the idea of migration in literature, in this case an essay type, in order to clarify his a;nity with the notion of rhizome borrowed from Gilles Deleuze. After a thorough analysis of the essay rhizomatique, in the second part I will tackle the question of the image 'migrant' by Andrei Makine, a francophone writer who emigrated from Russia in the late 1980's.
- Algérie - Une Histoire de Haine et d'Amour
Author Szuhaj, Katalin Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.13 Pages pp. 199-225 Keywords Algeria, France, immigration, emigration, interrelationship Abstract The paper examines the French-Algerian relationship through the subjects of immigration and emigration. This historical analysis focuses on 20th-century Algerian emigration with a special regard to the great wave of emigration that followed the Algerian war (1954-1962). The first part of the article presents contemporary Algerian industry, culture and social life. The multifaceted picture of 21st-century Algeria raises further issues. I try to find answers by giving a historical overview. The second part focuses on France and the life of different generations of Algerian immigrants in the country. I will consider the Parisian example that opened the wave of change of social life into intercultural society. The main objective of this article is to encourage the revaluation of the antagonistic political relationship between Algeria and France and to offer a new possibility to overcome the hostility caused by the recollection of the war.
- Les pronoms clitiques du francoprovençal: l'étude du dialecte de Pélussin
Author Horváth, Márton Gergely Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Iuvenilia DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.14 Pages pp. 227-256 Keywords affix, clitic, francoprovençal, pronoun, Romance Abstract The status of clitic or conjunctive pronouns of Romance languages is a highly debated topic in linguistic literature. A number of articles dedicated to this issue propose to analyse clitic pronouns as affixes that have lost their syntactic autonomy, whereas others assert that they are syntactically accessible arguments of the verb. This article focuses on the exposition and study of clitic pronouns in the francoprovençal dialect of Pélussin from the perspective of their syntactic and morphosyntactic properties. We conduct a survey of the criteria usually employed to distinguish between affixes and clitics, in order to attempt to determine how the clitic pronouns of this patois should be analysed. We conclude that the dialect of Pélussin is very similar to colloquial French from this point of view, hence it follows that the analyses put forward previously for the latter also apply to the dialect presented herein.
Authors Désfalvi-Tóth, András
Ruiz, María Jesús
Issue Vol. X/2008/1 Category Recensiones DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.15 Pages pp. 259-268 Reviews Ballenas en el jardín. Coordinación de Claudine Lécrivain y Soledad Bonet; prólogo y comentarios de Juan José Téllez. Cádiz, Diputación Provincial de Cádiz, colección Diálogo de Memorias, I, 2006, 318 págs. (María Jesús Ruiz)
Paola Manni: Il Trecento toscano. La lingua di Dante, Petrarca e Boccaccio. Storia della lingua italiana. Collana "La nuova scienza". il Mulino, Bologna, 2003, 493 pp. (Wildburg Gabriella)
Zsuzsa Simonffy (dir.) : L'un et le multiplet. Tinta Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 2006, 152 pp. (Désfalvi-Tóth András)