Articles of the selected category in Verbum:

  • La musica si infiltra nella poesia – l'arte di Eugenio Montale
    Author Mohácsy, Eszter
    Issue Vol. XVIII/2017/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 113-133
    Abstract This study discusses the connection between music and poetry in the early period of the Italian Nobel prize winner, Eugenio Montale’s poems. The greatest musical influence on his way of writing was the French composer, Claude Debussy. In this paper, I show how Montale was able to use this influence in certain poems. The paper focuses on three different pieces (Corno inglese, Falsetto, Musica sognata) of the same volume, Ossi di seppia. With few quotes from the poet himself, the reader will have a closer understanding of the essence of Montale’s poetry and how music can be the focus and not only an instrument in these poems.
  • Apologie d'un monstre sacré
    Author Marsó, Paula
    Issue Vol. XVIII/2017/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 135-147
    Abstract One of Rousseau’s last writings, Dialogues. Rousseau juge de J.-J. (Dialogues. Rousseau, judge of J.-J.) has long been viewed as evidence of his paranoia. It consists of three dialogues between a character named “Rousseau” and one identified as “Frenchman” who discuss the bad reputation and works of an author named “Jean-Jacques”. Rousseau sought to justify his entire career and undertook his most comprehensive reflection on himself as an author, his books, and his audience.
  • Más allá de lo fantásico en Distancia de rescate de Samanta Schweblin
    Author Nemrava, Daniel
    Issue Vol. XVIII/2017/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 149-158
    Abstract This study aims to describe the main aspects of narrative discourse in the novel Distancia de rescate by Samanta Schweblin. The paper examines the extent to which the novel can be classified into the genre of fantasy literature, using the application of linguistic transgression theory at three levels: syntactic, semantic and the level of discourse. Narratological analysis examines the parallel between the theme and the types of focalization. The last examined aspect is the strategy of constructing a literary space that exhibits the features of dystopia, based on B. McHale’s theory of a “heteropian zone” in postmodern fiction. At the same time, the work tries to prove that fiction goes beyond the limits of the genre, highlighting the socio-political and ecological context.
  • Quelques remarques sur les traits caractéristiques du récit de voyage de Martin Kukučín Impressions de France
    Author Malovecký, Mojmír
    Issue Vol. XVIII/2017/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 159-172
    Abstract The study outlines the factographic extralinguistic context of the selected parts of chapters 21 and 22 of the travel story Impressions from France by the Slovak writer Martin Kukučín. It analyzes the conceptualization by the author of the literary text in selection of cultural facts about history of France and contemporary life particularly in Paris in the twenties of twentieth century from a Central European perspective. It focuses on the author’s typical approach in textual construction combining historical facts, the author’s subjective points of view, and the description of everyday life in the streets of Paris, positively emphasizing the French people, their country and history.
  • Sur une Lectura Dantis erronée: Photin de Théssalonique ou de Sirmium?
    Author Stojkovski, Boris
    Issue Vol. XVII/2016/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 55-67
    Abstract The paper analyzes a part from Dante's Inferno (11.8–9) where the name of Photinus is mentioned as a heretic who misled pope Anastasius. The most famous medieval interpreters of Dante Alighieri and his work, Guido da Pisa and, especially, Giovanni Boccacio put forth an incorrect explanation stating that the Photinus Dante mentions was a deacon of Thessalonica. In reality, the explanation provided by those two lectores Dantis is wrong since it was a fourth-century bishop from Syrmia (Sirmium) who had been condemned as heretic. Even though some translators and later interpreters of Dante noticed this, there has not been a detailed analysis of these verses of Inferno.
  • D'un carnet l'autre : Personne et personnage chez Marcel Arland
    Author Pardo Jiménez, Pedro
    Issue Vol. XVII/2016/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 68-76
    Abstract In Carnets de Gilbert (1931), Marcel Arland gives voice again to the hero of L'Ordre, the novel for which he had been awarded the Goncourt Prize two years before. The novel consists of a collection of intimate reflections where Gilbert, alter ego of Arland in his fiction, expresses – in first person this time – the typical pessimism of postwar French youth. The notably enhanced 1944 reedition of the work turns to the same subject but adopts a deeper perspective and a more elaborate discourse. Ultimately, what this evolution shows is that, despite the coincidence in the title, the view of the world in Carnets de Gilbert of 1944 is no longer the character’s but the author’s.
  • Bartolomeo Fonzio and Greek literature
    Author Takács, László
    Issue Vol. XVII/2016/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 77-115
    Abstract After the Ottoman invasion of the territory of the Byzantine Empire and the fall of Constantinople in 1453, many excellent scholars migrated to Europe. Their most important destinations became the Italian cities (Florence, Venice, Ferrara, etc.). During the heyday period of these cities, Humanism, the renaissance of ancient culture, and the cult of antiquity played an important role, and the Italian Renaissance spread to other parts of Europe. After centuries of oblivion in the Latin Middle Ages, the impact of Greek language and literature on the knowledge of humanists was indisputable. Following the increasing interest in Greek antiquity during the Quattrocento, the leading humanists of Italy and France became familiar with ancient Greek culture, while the Byzantine scholars who migrated to Europe studied Latin and the vernacular languages. But this interaction was gradually decreasing as classical Greek works were beginning to be translated into Latin. Additionally, these translations made Greek literary, historical, and philosophical works accessible even to those who had a very limited or no knowledge of Greek. In this paper, I would like to illustrate the complexity of this phenomenon using the example provided by Bartolomeo Fonzio, one of the well-known humanists of the second half of the 15th century. Through his case, I would like to present how the knowledge of Greek became indispensable during the Quattrocento. Also, I intend to prove that earlier views about Fonzio’s Greek need reconsideration.
  • Il cannocchiale di Tristano: Il “vedere” e il “guardare” nel Tristano muore di Antonio Tabucchi
    Author Lukácsi, Margit
    Issue Vol. XVII/2016/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 116-126
    Abstract The paper analyses Antonio Tabucchi’s last novel, Tristani muore. It argues that in this novel too, Tabucchi leads the reader on the border of reality and imaginaton. We can observe all through the novel the references to visuality, various works of art, photographies. The paper highlights the essence of Tabucci’s writing through the meanings of the verbs vedere ‘see’ and guardare ‘look’.
  • Rive Sud/Rive Nord – à propos du dialogue entre Mustapha Chérif et Jacques Derrida
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 59-69
    Abstract The article elaborates on one of the last interviews given by French philosopher Jacques Derrida. An interesting aspect of the interview was that the interviewer was the Algerianborn philosopher and journalist, Mustapha Chérif. His questions tackled issues like Algerian identity and the relationship between politics and religion, more exactly, the relation between between Islam and the spiritual world of the West. Derrida's responses offer us autobiographical references as well as a remarkably positive image concerning a possible future dialogue between different cultures.
  • A propos de la mixité générique: L’exemple des contes autobiographiques (Maryse Condé)
    Author Bors, Edit
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 70-80
    Abstract In her first autobiography (Le coeur à rire et à pleurer. Contes vrais de mon enfance), Maryse Condé retraces his childhood in Guadeloupe as a series of stand-alone tales. The meeting of seemingly incompatible genres results in a new form of self-narratives and a new autobiographical strategy that focuses on a few key events of childhood. We consider here, in particular, the phenomena of "generic mixture" by querying about the possibilities of self-narratives through tales. We demonstrate that each tale follows a prototypical pattern of narrative sequences: a fully developed Initial Situation and Complications, followed by Actions, and a Resolution (with or without a Final Situation) promptly exposed. This compositional organization not only sketches the socio-cultural context but promotes the employment of the personal and moral development of the heroine, who in each tale must accomplish any task, fails or triumphs over trials of her life.
  • Reflets du pouvoir et de la société dans les Caractères de La Bruyère
    Author Zsák, Helga
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 81-89
    Abstract Among French 17th-century moralists, La Bruyère seems to be the only one who had a political and social conception described in the many chapters of Caractères. Inspired perhaps by antic philosophers and by his contemporary political theoreticians, he is courageous enough to advise the king and to underline his duties and his service toward the subordinates. His realistic portraits and descriptions and his philanthropic views announce, after the century of the birth of the State of law in France, the century of Enlightenment.
  • Das Motiv der Liebesnahrung bei Apuleius, Gottfried, Petrarca und da Ponte
    Author Adorjáni, Zsolt
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 90-101
    Abstract In this paper I investigate an erotic motif in Gottfried's Tristan, the lovers' nourisment by their mutual love. This motif of love-begotten mysterious satiety appears in a sonnet of Petrarca and in Lorenzo da Ponte's libretto for Mozart's opera Così fan tutte. The analysis shows that a case can be made for these texts being directly influenced by the Wunschleben-scene in the work of the medieval German poet. Yet another text seems to have some bearing on this question: a passage in Apuleius's Metamorphoses (The Golden Ass) could be considered the archetype for all appearances of this strange erotic motif in different disguises. Despite the highly hypothetical character of the arguments put forth, there is some likeliness that we are dealing with a continuous tradition being alive throughout remote ages and genres.
  • Gli arancini di Montalbano: Sensazioni, atmosfere e peculiarità di alcuni personaggi di Andrea Camilleri
    Author Sità, Michele
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 102-115
    Abstract The essay is inspired by the short story collection of Andrea Camilleri Gli arancini di Montalbano (Montalbano's Croquettes). I will highlight not only the features of the various characters involved in these stories but also the peculiarities of the Sicilian writer who is part of a long tradition of storytellers. Besides Montalbano, an undisputed and strong protagonist, the atmosphere of the pieces of Camilleri is also extrapolated from secondary characters, who give a particular touch of colour and a great strength to every story. It is not possible to speak about Camilleri without referring to his language: he has a direct and simple way to tell his stories, which comes from the wise mixture of standard Italian and the Sicilian dialect. The language gives a more human touch to the characters and to all the stories.
  • Il teatro dell'io antitetico: Lo sdoppiamento dell'io nel teatro di Luigi Pirandello e in quello di William Butler Yeats
    Author Balázs, Zsuzsanna
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 116-128
    Abstract The present paper aims at pointing out the parallelism between Luigi Pirandello's and W. B. Yeats's interpretation of the mask, and the idea that in a human being there live more than one selves. This attempt is significant, because so far, the various similarities between their plays have been examined merely in the light of the two authors' use of the techniques of the commedia dell'arte, and little attention has been paid to their concepts of the mask. I will illustrate that Yeats's idea of the self and its anti-self (the mask or Daimon) bears strong relation to Pirandello's interpretation of the distinction between the so-called persona and personaggio. Also, I will reveal the relationship between the characters' mask and their madness, especially regarding the Stage Manager figures. Plays discussed include two Pirandellian comedies (Six Characters in Search of an Author and Henry IV) and two plays by Yeats (The Player Queen and The Shadowy Waters).
  • Lettere di Giulio Perticari a Gian Giacomo Trivulzio
    Author Brambilla, Simona
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 129-165
    Abstract The study provides the critical edition of ten letters written by Vincenzo Monti's son-in-law, Giulio Perticari to Gian Giacomo Trivulzio from October 3rd 1813 to October 2nd 1820. The letters are preserved in the Biblioteca Trivulziana in Milan. The letters are preceded by an introduction, describing their contents, which are in great part related to manuscripts, ancient editions and many literary works, including lyrics by Poliziano, Fazio degli Uberti's Dittamondo, some manuscripts and ancient editions of the Passione by Niccolò di Mino Cicerchia, and works by Dante.
  • La représentation du moi vieillissant chez Annie Ernaux et Benoîte Groult
    Author Kéri, Henriett
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 166-173
    Abstract The ageing of the population is one of the greatest challenges for our society. It has been studied by different disciplines but research is quite rare in the domain of linguistics. This paper aims to give a stylistic analysis of how the ageing self is described by Annie Ernaux and Benoîte Groult in their autobiographical works. We are focusing on two aspects of the representation of the self: the designation and the description of the self. The first concentrates on the writers' use of personal pronouns through a subtle play with the names of the protagonist in Groult's autobiography, while the second briefly explores the figures of speech to describe the self in the works discussed.
  • Des tilleuls mutiles aux Lacrimae rerum: Le Virgile de la Vie de Henry Brulard
    Author Pataki, Elvira
    Issue Vol. XVI/2015/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 174-200
    Abstract The aim of the article is to examine the ambiguous attitude of Stendhal towards classical antiquity, starting from some allusions to Latin literature in his autobiographical work Vie de Henry Brulard. As a first step, the analysis, based on an interdisciplinary approach, would give a panoramic view of the classical authors, who are considered by Stendhal as the representatives of a permanent romanticism, and consequently have a serious impact on the development of his literary taste and aesthetic canon. The paper focuses on three allusions to Virgil, stressing their philological, aesthetic and psychological issues. The three passages as a whole – a problematic pseudo-citation Nunc erubescit ver, inserted into an odd biographical context and surrounded by an allusion to the Georgics and by a famous verse of the Aeneid – seems to form a remarkable narrative triptych which is marked both by vulgar humiliation and subtility, illustrating the turbulent relationship between the novelist and his Classics.
  • Conjeturas del Más Allá
    Author Valenzuela, Luisa
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 165-172
  • Apuntes sobre la representación de lo político en la narrativa de Manuel Puig
    Author Nemrava, Daniel
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 173-190
    Abstract Based on the idea of Adorno’s impossibility to narrate and to represent freedom because of the split between “experience” and “narration” of history, we offer a reading of Manuel Puig focusing on how its narrative thematizes this crisis in a specific social and political context. Accepting the possibility of the dialectical relationship between “experience” and “history”, and considering the “history” as a structure of “experience”, we are allowed to analyze the mode and character of the structuring of this “experience” and the meaning and message of the dialectical relationship between the entities concerned. From Puig’s narratives we have chosen the novel El beso de la mujer araña (The Kiss of the Spider Woman). Through its protagonist, the author narrates imaginary displacements at various levels, especially “border territories” or “transition zones”, and he creates “maps” from the cell, interconnecting multiple fields in the sense of rhizomatic mapping. In this dynamic of “journeys” which determines the existence of the subjects, we are revealed deeper meanings concerning Argentinean social and political reality.
  • Locura, elipsis y tergiversación de la realidad: Pájaros en la boca de Samanta Schweblin
    Author Báder, Petra
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 191-197
    Abstract The following essay analyzes the recurringmotifs of the short story collection Pájaros en la boca by the Argentine Samanta Schweblin, focusing on the narrative techniques that induce the transformation and the twisting of everyday reality. Due to the introduction of an unexpected event, the notion of reality undergoes a substantial change reflected not only in the linguistic style of the narrative (dry and purified, completely deprived of lyricism), but also in the “personal narration” of the protagonists, witnesses of the most unexpected and subversive incidents. After examining the aforementioned aspects of the short stories, the paper seeks to evaluate the influence of earlier literary tendencies and genres such as the neo-fantastic on Schweblin’s narrative, contesting Luciana Irene Sastre’s interpretation of the short story El cavador that confirms the determining influence of modern Argentine narrative tendencies, inscribing Schweblin’s work in the category of post-autonomous literatures, a concept introduced by Josefina Ludmer.
  • La visión de la historia en las obras de Ricardo Piglia
    Author Cselik, Ágnes
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 198-205
    Abstract Can the narrative version of history replace the real one? Does objective history exist or is everything fictious, and do we choose some version and declare it to be the real one? In the works of Ricardo Piglia the series of personal, private stories are interleaved with the writing process, with the theory of history and most importantly, with hypothetical history. For Ricardo Piglia, the act of writing is an activity which allows one to create different versions and different drafts; this is impossible with history that one lives in, history which is experienced in person. In this paper, I analyze Piglia’s method of converting tangible reality and a history situation defined in pure literary fiction. The account approaches the problem from the viewpoint of the protagonists, stories and the complete work of the author.
  • “Aquí pasan cosas raras”: miedo, vergüenza y culpa en algunos relatos de Luisa Valenzuela
    Author Cerda Montes de Oca, Susana
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 206-215
    Abstract In the collection of short stories Aquí pasan cosas raras, Luisa Valenzuela portrays a world that reflects the reality of state terrorism in Argentina during the 70’s and 80’s. The aim of this paper is to examine and explore how the representation of emotions such as fear, guilt, and shame invites us to think about the relationship between the victim and the victimizer. I argue that some of Valenzuela’s literary representations are helpful to understand what Hanna Arendt suggests on the banality of evil, and what Martha Nussbaum’s emphasises about the fragility of goodness.
  • La advertencia de los autómatas de Eduardo L. Holmberg: el simulacro artificial en Argentina
    Author Menczel, Gabriella
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 216-222
    Abstract Eduardo L. Holmberg was a versatile Argentinean author in the 19th century, particularly interested in the natural sciences, who introduced the genre of science fiction in Argentinean literature. This paper focuses on his short story “Horacio Kalibang o los autómatas” (1879) from the perspectives of identity inversions, creation of mechanic simulacrums of human beings as a projection of a hyperreality (Baudrillard). The artificial simulacrum is produced within the frames of dynamic games such as identity vs. alterity, or in Paul Ricoeur’s terms, identity (mêmeté) vs. ipseity (ipséité). This study presents the narrative techniques of creating a sinister reality, and the way of converting the identities into victims manipulated by an unconceivable superior power.
  • Un diálogo ultra-breve como denuncia de la represión: Grotesco y metáfora en los microrrelatos de István Örkény y Ana María Shua
    Author Gatti, Giuseppe
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 223-239
    Abstract The central aim of our analysis consists of a comparative study about the literary representation of traumatic forms of violence that link themselves with the repression and the terror of State. We will concentrate our attention on two writers, the Hungarian playwright, novelist and writer István Örkény (1912–1979) and the Argentinian writer Ana Maria Shua (1951–): they share the same frequentness of a genre as the micro-fiction, a “narrative territory”, particularly fertile for the production of political allegories. The first object of reflection is the short story’s production of Örkény: especially, the stories “The new neighbor” and “The last bone of cherry”. Both tales belong to the book Egyperces novellák (1968), translated into the Spanish with the title of Cuentos de un minuto. The biography of Örkény reflects the way in which the trauma of violence and ostracism is re-elaborated across a writing style that appeals to the grotesque humor and to the irony. The second object of analysis is a selection of micro-fiction of Shua, from the books Temporada de fantasmas (2004) and Fenómenos de circo (2011). In both texts the fictional representation of the years of dictatorship that has characterized the recent history of the nations of the Cono Sur is constructed on a scheme that approaches the political history of Argentina from an allegoric fictionalization of authoritarianisms, censorship, violence and exile.
  • “La imagen es la forma lírica del ansia de ser siempre más”: Cortázar y la imagen como forma de expresión
    Author Imrei, Andrea
    Issue Vol. XV/2014/1-2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 240-248
    Abstract This paper provides an overview of various theories related to Cortázar’s ideas about the metaphor. I look into Plato, Herder, Nietzsche, Heidegger, Jakobson, Gadamer, Ricoeur, Derrida, and deMan to explore and demonstrate the way in which Cortázar revaluated and reworked the meaning of visual images to create his distinctive poetics. Postmodern literature, like Cortazar’s, questions the referentiality of language and shows that it is only visual images that determine meaning. In the work of Cortázar there is always a hidden story that informs us about a different reality. A reality that is form by the logic of metaphorical structures.
  • Tiempo del relato y perspectiva narrativa en la literatura en primera persona
    Author Cuasante Fernández, Elena
    Issue Vol. XIV/2013/1-2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.14.2013.1–2.4
    Pages pp. 53-68
    Keywords autobiography; narrative theory; plot order; focalisation; fragmentary genres
    Abstract Using as a base relevant studies on narrative theory and specific studies related to the autobiographical genre, this work sets out to perform a detailed analysis of the formal features of first person narratives. To be more concise, we have centred our analysis on two narrative categories that are most relevant to the autobiographical genre, that is, narrative tense and narrative perspective. The final objective of this study is to identify the dominant formal features of each variant of the autobiographical genre, and, to do this, we shall consider, on the one hand, the range within the genre, and on the other handmake a distinction between fiction and non-fiction.
  • Lo fantástico literarioy su consideración como género: Revisión de las principales teorías
    Author Méndez Robles, Pedro Salvador
    Issue Vol. XIV/2013/1-2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.14.2013.1–2.5
    Pages pp. 69-94
    Keywords fantastic; theories; genre
    Abstract The meanings dictionaries attribute to the term fantastic are diverse and its daily usage is unclear. Likewise, its complexity does not get any better when it comes to antagonistic theories formulated around the fantastic and literary counterpart. Under these premises, our work intends to take stock of the main conceptualizing approaches around "the fantastic" in the last half of the present century, making it clear what elements bring them closer or grow them apart. We will also tackle its consideration as a genre as it is an inseparable aspect from its theoretical conceptualization. This is so to the extent that the different theories, although being divergent in many cases, stem from the assumption that "the fantastic" enjoys literary autonomy.
  • La femme à travers les yeux d'un uraniste
    Author Torre Giménez, Estrella de la
    Issue Vol. XIV/2013/1-2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.14.2013.1–2.6
    Pages pp. 95-108
    Keywords Georges Eekhoud; women; social critique
    Abstract Surrounded by women since his childhood, the uranian Eekhoud never excluded them from his life or his literary work. A motherless child early in his life, some women became veritable accomplices, including his grandmother, his great aunt and his wife Cornélie, and he in turn gave women a privileged role in his novels, in many of which they are the protagonists. Through his fictional heroines he manages to convey his true feelings, his critique of the bourgeoise complacency, and his attitudes toward anything he loved or abhorred. The female figure became for him the driving force between his true nature and a society of which he was aware he was an outcast.
  • Ma glèbe est fruste, plane, vouée aux brouillards...
    Author Bermúdez Medina, Lola
    Issue Vol. XIV/2013/1-2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.14.2013.1–2.7
    Pages pp. 109-123
    Keywords Georges Eekhoud; landscape; homoeroticism
    Abstract The paper presents an analysis of the role played by the landscape (above all, the Belgian Campine) in Georges Eekhoud’s oeuvre. Landscape was particularly prominent in his early work, and it was always associated with the national values presiding the emergence of Belgian literature. The defence of rusticity would be increasingly pervaded by sociological values (resistance against the “universal enlistment towards the bourgeois ideal”) as well as homoerotic values, which are at the root of practically the entire work of the Belgian novelist.
  • What's the Issue ? - Remarques partisanes sur les études littéraires dans leur rapport aux études culturelles
    Author Schuerewegen, Franc
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.2
    Pages pp. 271-280
    Keywords cultural studies, literature, immanence, transcendence
    Abstract Cultural studies and literary studies are sometimes in conflict with each other, but why? They can be in good understanding with each other if we give it a try. Why can they not be brothers and sisters, and work in team? I try to explain here why good understanding is feasible, as far as methodology is concerned. But I admit, I am a bit sceptical, too. I argue that good friends can also be good enemies, but can work together nonetheless.
  • Du dialogue entre études littéraires et cultural studies
    Author Grall, Catherine
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.3
    Pages pp. 281-308
    Keywords cultural studies, literary studies, literature, dialogue
    Abstract How can cultural studies and literary studies dialogue? After a short summary of the history of cultural studies, this paper insists upon the transdisciplinarity of the field, seen both as an advantage and as a weakness. Its common points with other sciences — in the same way as comparative literature has common points with other fields — make it an interesting domain and produce powerful notions but also reveal a paradigmatic lack. Only a veritable open-minded dialogue between cultural studies and literary studies devoid of any ideological globalizing views can lead to an interesting epistemological feedback for literary sciences in our time, as literature seems more and more concerned with concrete, social and global issues.
  • Arrière-texte et histoire littéraire culturelle
    Author Trouvé, Alain
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.4
    Pages pp. 309-322
    Keywords arrière-texte, intertext, history, image, cultural literary history
    Abstract Is literature a cultural product among others? This paper proposes a qualified answer, in association with the notion: "arrière-texte". It is a concept of the nineteen-sixties and a forgotten rival of intertext but has recently been studied again at the University of Reims. The "arrière-texte" accounts for the process of artistic creation from the respective points of view of the author and the reader. Its four aspects — concealed intertext, text–image relation, individual and collective circumstances, desiring body — not only include but also go further than the cultural dimensions. The relation between literature and history, for example, shows that an author can dialogue with historians but that he alone really takes into account the association of desiring subjects with wide-ranging history. In the same way, while it is perfectly conceivable to put words onto images, literature also uses the plasticity of verbal language to let one feel the preverbal affects created by certain images.
  • Lire et lier : de l'écran au livre
    Author Gleize, Joëlle
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.5
    Pages pp. 323-336
    Keywords digital culture, history of print, author, reader
    Abstract Digital culture is often described as carrying daunting and unseen effects. However, as continuities do exist between culture of printed books and digital culture, some of those daunting effects have already been encountered in the history of print: fear of the impossible distinction between texts in literature, of the disappearance of the author, of the omnipotence of the reader. To put them in perspective is a way to moderate them.
  • L'écriture et "La forêt"
    Author Schoentjes, Pierre
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.6
    Pages pp. 337-353
    Keywords ecopoetics, nature, forest, Gascar, contemporary European literature
    Abstract Starting from a close reading of La forêt (in : Le règne végétal, 1981) by much praised but alas long forgotten Gallimard author Pierre Gascar, this study aims to demonstrate how nature-writing influences the way we consider nature in our ecological-conscious world. Using intuitions expressed by Fowles in his seminal The Three (1979), this ecopoetic reading echoes a series of important writers, from Mario Rigoni Stern to Claude Simon over other major contemporary writers.
  • Peut-on appliquer la littérature aux études culturelles ? - Réflexions sémiologiques autour d'une nouvelle de Maupassant
    Author Del Lungo, Andrea
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.7
    Pages pp. 354-368
    Keywords sign, semiology, Maupassant cultural studies, prostitution
    Abstract Literature has often been, in spite of itself, a pretext: depending on the era, it has been deployed for the study of authors' biographies, modes of production, semiology, structuralism, academic methodology, sociology, and of course, psychoanalysis. Cultural studies, as practiced today, seems to be following a similar trend, namely that of approaching the literary text as a tool for analysis — or even, more plainly, as a document or source —, and with the same status as others, from the perspective of a global and cultural history. Far from succumbing to the temptation to restore literature's lost sacred aura, or affirming literature's alleged centrality among an array of disciplines, it is perhaps time to recognize its specificity, at the very least and, more importantly, to define its points of origin that allow us to analyze the relationship between literature, culture, and knowledge. With this in mind, I propose in particular to examine the sign as concept, which appears seldom modernized within cultural studies, especially in the absence of a historicized viewpoint. What is the state of semiology today? Can it still function as a paradigm capable of deciphering reality? This analysis aims to investigate these questions using the methodological framework of "historicized semiology", which aptly lends itself to structuring the study of literature and cultures by defining different dimensions of literary representation. This project applies this approach to a novella with an eminently semiotic title, Le Signe 'The Sign', by Maupassant.
  • La topographie des identités : lecture culturelle de Partir de Tahar Ben Jelloun
    Author Ádám, Anikó
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.2.8
    Pages pp. 369-380
    Keywords Tangier, Maghreb, poetic space, topography, identity
    Abstract The city of Tangier, the focus of the present paper, has been at the intersection of the Greek and Berber cultures from the very beginning. The geographical position of the city at the crossroads of an ocean, a sea and two continents has given it a unique fate: the starting and ending point for travellers. First of all, this study endeavours to reveal the imaginative and poetic space that created the metonymic relationship between Tangier and the poetic language that describes it. Secondly, the study will analyse the topography that was set up in the novel Partir by the Moroccan writer, Tahar Ben Jelloun, in which each chapter is named (by the first indicator of identity) after a character and takes place in a specific location. According to our hypothesis, the characters, marked not only by their Maghreb and Moroccan identities but also by Tangier, while trying to get rid of their destabilizing identity linked to the city on the edge of the world, are on the quest for an ideal identity that could give them a psychological and moral integrity.
  • Orfeu e Perséfone, o caos e a metamorfose: Uma literatura de quase morte
    Author D'Angelo, Biagio
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 51-52
  • La privación de lo finito en A cielo abierto de João Gilberto Noll
    Author Bylaardt, Cid Ottoni
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.5
    Pages pp. 53-69
    Keywords erratic writing, lack of limits, literature of dispersion, impossibility of literature
    Abstract This text intends to show how João Gilberto Noll's writing is erratic and disperse due to the lack of limits within which the literary text may contain itself. Such writing is characterized by the excess of world in it, by the impossibility of intervening in the real world, imprisoned by an infinite that is a surplus, by a lack of finite. Talking about men and things in the periphery of the world and in the end of times, literature is not a serious aid in the domain of tasks, because it is not the result of a true work, it is not a kind of work that acts among the human beings. It is thus strange to every true culture, to true history, which is not made of a fictitious transformation.
  • Dichos de vida y muerte en "Campo general" de João Guimarães Rosa
    Author Alves, Maria Theresa Abelha
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.6
    Pages pp. 70-84
    Keywords language, death, law and infraction, word and silence
    Abstract This article, while discussing the relationship between language and death, shows the origin and consequences of the tragedy unfolding in the novel by Guimarães Rosa - Campo Geral - through the eyes of two little brothers - Miguilim and Dito - who lose their innocence by discovering the family secrets involving betrayal of fraternal and marital law. The death creeps into narrative through symbolic and real deaths that occur as acts in language and speech.
  • La poesía de Waly Salomão. Antropofagia, hibridismo y polifonía
    Author Alves, Ida Ferreira
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.7
    Pages pp. 85-106
    Keywords contemporary Brazilian poetry, Waly Salomão, cultural hibridity
    Abstract The paper discusses the poetic work of Waly Salomão, contemporary poet and one of the strongest voices of Brazilian post-70's poetry, with a focus on the idea of cultural heterogeneity in the Portuguese language. The relation between contemporary lyrical discourse, anthropophagy and cultural hybridity is shown through the perspective of a paper by Jahan Ramazani, The Hybrid Muse (2001).
  • Perséfone e a Polaroid. Escrever a imagem para entrar na morte (sobre alguns poetas contemporâneos, especialmente de língua portuguesa)
    Author D'Angelo, Biagio
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.8
    Pages pp. 107-124
    Keywords photography, literature, death, present, punctum
    Abstract This paper discusses the relationship between writing and photography. The essays by Susan Sontag and Roland Barthes will be the theoretical bases for authors such as António Lobo Antunes, Ruy Belo, Núno Júdice, Vasco Graça Moura, Miguel Torga, Sofia de Mello Breyner Andresen, Rolf Dieter Brinkmann, Hilda Hilst, and Wislawa Szymborska. We would like to observe how the Other - in the photographical discourse - is narrated in a death perspective. Image, in fact, presents, in its paradoxical totality, catastrophic tensions and emptiness.
  • Orfeo tropical. Algunos aspectos de la poesía brasileña contemporánea
    Author Junqueira, Maria Aparecida
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.9
    Pages pp. 125-136
    Keywords poetry, Brazilian contemporary production, Walter Benjamin, literary reviews
    Abstract The aim of this essay is to examine some aspects of Brazilian contemporary poetry through the ideas of pre-history and post-history in Walter Benjamin's poetic thought.
  • Silêncio e comunicação: a literatura de Bartolomeu Campos de Queirós
    Author Duarte, Lélia Parreira
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.10
    Pages pp. 137-147
    Keywords Bartolomeu Campos de Queirós, reader, silence, death, life
    Abstract This paper analyses several works by Bartolomeu Campos de Queirós, trying to show that his literature is built by two kinds of silence: the silenced one, that hides what could be said, and the silent one, the unnamable, a kind of irreducible sense only reached by an allusive way. Bartolomeu thus values his reader, also incomplete and desirous, authorizes them to be free and to play with language. He thus makes a communication without words possible, he talks of the frailty of the human being and of his anguish when facing life and death.
  • Un fruto inesperado de una labranza agotada. Lavoura arcaica de Raduan Nassar
    Author Mourão, Cleonice Paes Barreto
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.11
    Pages pp. 148-157
    Keywords Lavoura arcaica, Raduan Nassar, language, textual analysis
    Abstract This essay examines Raduan Nassar’s novel Lavoura arcaica. In it, the scandal of the narrative is not incest or murder but what they reveal about the fragility of the word. The strength of the presence of these archaist taboos is linked to the inability to deal with language. Language, in fact, hides behind masks and calls for freedom, inflexibility before the speech that constituted the discourse of the Other. The difference remained cursed, hatched in the gesture of the Father who could not absorb it, reconcile it.
  • El exceso de la muerte, la excepción de la violencia y la escrita como soberanía: Feliz ano novo de Rubem Fonseca
    Author Vecchi, Roberto
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.12
    Pages pp. 158-167
    Keywords violence, literature, exception, author as a sovereign, Rubem Fonseca, Brazilian military dictatorship
    Abstract The article theoretically reflects on the relationship between violence and literature. In this sense, Rubem Fonseca's work is emblematical, first because violence is the principle object of an attempt of artistic representation, going beyond anymimetic temptation, and also because, through his narrative engagement, the author develops a sharp meta-reflection on the possibilities of writing the violence. The book Feliz ano novo, edited in 1975 during the military dictatorship contains explicit references to violence, for this reason, it was censored for many years. The book is a collection of short stories, centered on many apparently individual cases of material and symbolical violence that, actually, entail larger and political dimensions. The critical approach of the essay is based on some categories of political philosophy, considering the author endowed with a paradoxical sovereignty that allows him to exercise a strong counter-power as a condition to succeed in finding a literary form for a possible, finally full violence representation.
  • Morte com espectador. A persistência do trágico em Lya Luft
    Author Finazzi-Agrò, Ettore
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.13
    Pages pp. 168-179
    Keywords Lya Luft, language, death, family
    Abstract This text deals with the question about the relationship between language and death (that is, how death supports language and how language attempts to express death) in the first narrative production by Lya Luft and, in particular, in her novel O quarto fechado. Considering the theories of Hegel, Lévinas, Blanchot and Agamben, the paper attempts to highlight the originality of the Brazilian writer's position on death, considered not as a threshold that separates existence from its opposite, but as something familiar (in the full sense) to pain and loss, underlining the proximity - previously studied by Freud in its etymological implications - between Heim and Unheimlich.
  • Hacia una mitología de la muerte: El navegante dormido de Abilio Estévez
    Author Cannavacciuolo, Margherita
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.14
    Pages pp. 180-194
    Keywords Abilio Estévez, El navegante dormido, death, writing, original absence
    Abstract This paper focuses on Abilio Estévez's novel El navegante dormido (2007) in order to analyze the relationship between writing and death in it. Considering absence as a common root to both these elements, this paper pays special attention to how absence shapes the novel's narrative construction by demanding the replacement of expression with accumulation. The text in fact reflects the inability of verbal language to convey the original experience of an existential void.
  • Espacios, sujetos, escritur: notas sobre la muerte en Relato de um certo Oriente de Milton Hatoum
    Author Francisco, Denis Leandro
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.15
    Pages pp. 195-207
    Keywords space, subject, writing, death, Milton Hatoum, The Tree of the Seventh Heaven
    Abstract This paper analyses three important topoi of the novel The Tree of the Seventh Heaven by Milton Hatoum - space, subject and writing - in an attempt to show how these elements are marked by a signal of death, finitude and impossibility.
  • La muerte en tránsito. Ficción y reconocimiento en Gran Sertón: Veredas de João Guimarães Rosa
    Author Rowland, Clara
    Issue Vol. XIII/2012/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.13.2012.1.16
    Pages pp. 208-224
    Keywords João Guimarães Rosa, Grande Sertão: Veredas, epistolarity, recognition, temporality
    Abstract This essay explores the rhetoric of temporality in João Guimarães Rosa's novel Grande Sertão: Veredas through the foregrounding of an element apparently alien to the oral culture that would seem to structure its universe: the letter as a figure of writing. Focusing on the episode of Nhorinhá's delayed love letter to Riobaldo and on the implications of the ghostly temporality of epistolary communication, issues of representation, legibility, recognition and narrative will be discussed.
  • Intrigues du pouvoir dans Les amours tragiques de Pyrame et Thisbé de Théophile de Viau
    Author Zsák, Helga
    Issue Vol. XII/2010/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.2.4
    Pages pp. 289-295
    Keywords 18th century, drama, Théophile de Viau, power, conspiracy, love
    Abstract Théophile de Viau, a very talented poet of the early 18th century, wrote his Tragic Love of Pyrame and Thisbé in 1621, and this work was one of the most successful plays of the whole century. Inspired by Ovid, the play shows many similarities with Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, but seems to depict the presence of authority and despotism more sharply. In this context, the contrast between the treatment of the themes of power, generosity, liberty and care, is deep, lyrical and moving.
  • Emploi de la critique génétique sur les variantes du poème A un jour de Simone Weil
    Author Gutbrod, Gizella
    Issue Vol. XII/2010/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.2.5
    Pages pp. 296-308
    Keywords mysticism, genetic analysis, metrical form, Simone Weil
    Abstract The mystical philosopher Simone Weil is lesser known as a poet. Her few poems express her mystic experience; her longest poem, A un jour (To the sun) has an interesting genesis. It happens rarely in genetic research that we possess all the textual variants. This allows the author of the present paper to prepare the pre-text of the poem and to draw the resultant conclusions. In the process of analyzing the poem, we can observe some elements of the functioning of the verse technique influenced by Paul Valéry, the organizing role of rhyme and sounds, which have metaphysical bearing. The force that controls the imagination as a result of the fixed form is part of the transcendent technique. The biographical importance of the genetic analysis of Weil's poems lies in the fact that the mystical experience leads to determining form. This means the abandonment of philosophical discourse, poesy becomes the only possibility of expression.
  • Dilatation du temps et de l'espace: approche énonciative de "ici" et "maintenant" dans Enfance de Nathalie Sarraute
    Author Bors, Edit
    Issue Vol. XII/2010/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.2.6
    Pages pp. 309-318
    Keywords time, space, deixis, adverbs, Sarraute
    Abstract This paper is a contribution to the analysis of autobiographical strategies from traditional autobiography to new autobiography. Our purpose is to define the occurrences of some deictic adverbs and, further, to spell out their discursive specifics in autobiographical texts, especially in Sarraute's Enfance. Furthermore, we propose to place all these facts into an enunciative dimension and more precisely, in the perspective of the spatial and temporal deixis. This analysis is first concerned with drawing up the connections between the different values of the present tense, the complexity of personal pronouns and the occurrences of deictic adverbs, and, secondly, with examining the processes which produce the expansion of the enunciative space.
  • De la crise du roman: la poétique romanesque de la N.R.F. sur les pages de Nyugat
    Author Radvánszky, Anikó
    Issue Vol. XII/2010/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.2.7
    Pages pp. 319-328
    Keywords Albert Gyergyai, André Gide, crisis, novel, modernity
    Abstract This paper examines the impact of history on aesthetics discourse that took place from the 1910s to the 1930s in the Hungarian journal Nouvelle Revue Française in the context of the novel as a genre. A primary resource are the writings of Albert Gyergyai in the journal Nyugat, which had been an important publisher of French literature and culture since the 1920s. Through examining Gyergyai's publications and his book A mai francia regény (The modern French novel), as well as the Hungarian reception of Gide (in which Gyergyai's works cited played a partial contributing role), the present study examines the extent to which the French genre-dispute, intimately linked to the quesions of literary modernism, was related to the literary renaissance associated with Nyugat.
  • Narration d'une double recherche dans Un long dimanche de fiançailles de Sébastien Japrisot
    Author Körömi, Gabriella
    Issue Vol. XII/2010/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.12.2010.2.8
    Pages pp. 329-345
    Keywords Japrisot, narrator, written narrative, identity-seeking
    Abstract The novel Un long dimanche de fiançailles (A very long engagement) takes a special place in Sébastien Japrisot's oeuvre. On the one hand, the writer had worked on it for the longest time (nearly four years), on the other hand, he put a lot of autobiographical elements in it. The salient feature of Japrisot's writing is held to be the subversion of narrative logic. This statement is true for A very long engagement, in spite of the fact that its structure is simpler than the those of the writer's other novels. This time Japrisot complicates the identity of the narrator as the heterodiegetic narrator is nobody else but the main character of the novel, Mathilde. It is she herself thar narrates - or more precisely - writes her own story in an unusual way: in the third person singular. Why does the writer cover up the real narrator Mathilde behind the mask of the heterodiegetic narrator? This is the question that this paper focuses on. This study is to honour the writer, who would be 90 years old this year.
  • "Excitata Est Ea Natio Ante Paucos Annos Singulari et Eleganti Ingenio Matthiae Regis": Il Viaggio Del Volterrano in Ungheria
    Author Budetta, Enrica
    Issue Vol. X/2008/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.4
    Pages pp. 51-66
    Keywords trip, Hungary, Raffaele Maffei, Giovanni d'Aragona, Matthias Corvinus, Florio Banfi
    Abstract During the winter of 1479–1480, Pope Sixtus IV determined that humanist Raffaele Maffei from Volterra (1451–1522) should join the cardinal Giovanni d'Aragona, who had been sent as papal legate to Matthias Corvinus's court. This paper illustrates Maffei's impressions of his trip, as they emerge in a published but little known letter addressed to his friend Niccolò Lisci, as well as in the eighth book of his famous encyclopedia, the Commentarii Urbani. Although the Hungarians' bellicose nature and their Spartan habits impressed the Italian humanist, Maffei was truly amazed by the incredible cultural flourishing of the Corvinian court.
  • Questioni di Tempo, Narrativa e Identità Nei Romanzi di Alessandro Baricco Novecento e Seta
    Author Horváth, Kornélia
    Issue Vol. X/2008/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.10.2008.1.5
    Pages pp. 67-75
    Keywords novel, Alessandro Baricco, time, narration, identity
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide an interpretation of Alessandro Baricco's two novels, Novecento and Seta, from various perspectives. The problem of time, the forms of narration, the function of names and finally the problems of identity provide the main points of view of the analysis, which is partly based on some theoretical thoughts of Michail Bachtin and Paul Ricoeur.
  • Les premiers comparatistes et l'inachèvement linguistique de la France: Le problème de l'occitan
    Author Claudon, Francis
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.2
    Pages pp. 159-180
    Keywords French comparatists, linguistic unity, Provençal, Occitan studies, romanic culture
    Abstract This paper deals with the question of the linguistic unity of France from a diachronic viewpoint. Until the end of the 18th century, intellectuals, educators (Rollin, La Harpe, Noel and La Place) always emphasized the fact that in France people spoke French, which is not entirely true, for the whole South had been speaking a different language from that spoken in Paris for a long time. Still, at the beginning of the 19th century, Thiers, Stendhal, considered Provence, Langedoc, the South-West of France, as a far-off, under-developed country. It was in this context that the first French comparatists appeared. Fauriel, J. J. Ampère, and a few others (Raynouard) contributed in this way to the birth of Provençal and Occitan studies. At the same time, they dispelled the myth of a France that would linguistically and culturally be heir to Rome and Latinity. Even the stance of Maurras, for instance, is complex: himself a southerner, the herald of romanic culture, he explains in his memoirs how much he hesitated between the two languages, at the time of the Félibrige movement. The end of this prolonged cultural autonomy coincided with the soar of Symbolism. Nonetheless, the French comparatists began their career by distinguishing reality from myths, in a purely French debate which still retains today some secret intricacies.
  • Baudelaire et l'énigme de "J. G. F."
    Author Brix, Michel
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.3
    Pages pp. 181-186
    Keywords Baudelaire, J.G. F. Baillarger, medicine, poetry, French
    Abstract The dedication "À J. G. F." appears twice in Baudelaire's work. As a heading to Paradis artificiels (1860) the first time; and a second time in the 1861 edition of Les Fleurs du Mal, where the poem entitled "L'Héautontimorouménos" is addressed to this mysterious person. Up until now, these initials have guarded their secret. To whom do they belong? To this day, no mention has ever been made by critics that those initials match the forenames of a famous contemporary of the author, a doctor twice mentioned by Baudelaire, the alienist (psychiatrist) Jules Gabriel François Baillarger.
  • Origines et aspects d'un engagement culturel: l'Italie de Valery Larbaud
    Author Désfalvi-Tóth, András
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.4
    Pages pp. 187-207
    Keywords Italy, voyage, confession, essay, Larbaud
    Abstract Valery Larbaud had a spiritual inclination to love and admiration which thrilled him and made him find pleasure in the different forms of Beauty, including landscapes and literature, women and works of art. He enjoyed them all, but discovering his own limits made him suffer in spite of the spiritual and physical pleasure he felt. According to Valery Larbaud, Italy appears as "the privileged centre of Romanity" and "the Garden of the Empire", including the Catholic countries of the five continents, Rome being its historical capital. In this paper, we are going to analyse the thematic and technical specificities of the writings about Italy by Valery Larbaud, a citizen of this Empire.
  • "Le romantique de la clarté". L'influence de la pensée camusienne sur l'oeuvre de Miklós Mészöly
    Author Radvánszky, Anikó
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.5
    Pages pp. 209-216
    Keywords present time, light, passé indéfini, absurd, existentialism
    Abstract French prose exerted various influences on the Hungarian writer, Miklós Mészöly. The present study focuses on the impact of Albert Camus. The paper interprets the parallelisms of their world-views apparent in their writings, along the lines of the 'light' motif analysis in The Romanticism of Clarity, an essay by Mészöly on Camus. The light motif guiding the descriptions, based on an accurate perception of the factual world of Mészöly and Camus, does not only shed a light on the possible interpretations of the time concepts the two authors have but also, through the connection of referential representation and ontological/absurd present time, it enables us to gain a deeper insight into the poetics of prose of Mészöly.
  • "Des mots Écorchés vifs": Langue et identité dans l'écriture d'Antonine Maillet
    Author Marosvári, Mária
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.6
    Pages pp. 217-229
    Keywords Antonine Maillet, Acadia, France, identity, spoken language
    Abstract The fact that Antonine Maillet was born in Acadia deeply influences her life's work as a writer. In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the linguistic characteristics through which she expresses this identity, on one hand, at a lexical level (archaisms, Acadianisms), and on the other hand, at the level of proverbs. We will also analyse the textual organisation, the coexistence of the different levels of language, the idiolects of the characters in the framework of a given text as well as the epilinguistic dimension of Antonine Maillet's writing.
  • Rap francophone: création d'identité culturelle "in action"
    Author Szabó-Gilinger, Eszter
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.7
    Pages pp. 231-243
    Keywords hip hop, code-switching, rap lyrics, Francophone, African American Vernacular English
    Abstract The present paper studies the cultural and linguistic practices of Francophone (both mother tongue and foreign language speaker) rap groups using their lyrics as data to be analyzed. The methodology chosen is of a double nature: sociolinguistics and critical discourse analysis are used in order to arrive at a more complete picture. The analysis suggests that code-switching is a means through which rappers can create an identity for themselves which identifies them with the African American origins of rap music while allowing for a strong, alternative, national identity. It seems visible that the multilingual identity is one which is gladly embraced because it allows for a wider variety of linguistic practices.
  • Legislazione linguistica e percezione dell'alterità: intorno al fallimento della tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche in Italia
    Author Toso, Fiorenzo
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.2.8
    Pages pp. 245-257
    Keywords language policy, Italy, linguistic minorities, national minorities, language law
    Abstract This paper illustrates the problems that arose after the approval of a law in Italy (Act no. 482/1999) on the safeguarding and enhancement of traditional linguistic minorities by examining a number of specific examples. The law proved to be not only seriously insufficient, but even had negative repercussions, both with regard to the overall judgement expressed on Italy's linguistic heritage seen as a cultural heritage, and with regard to the fact that in many situations the very principal of protection was distorted: from the refusal to finance a number of groups rightfully and meritoriously entitled to such funds to the financing of local realities which have very little if nothing to do with linguistic varieties. In general, "language policy" in Italy is negatively influenced by the confusion between "national minority" and "linguistic minority", one of the major factors in accounting for the failure of initiatives attempting to help the linguistic minorities.
  • Le moi des autres: les sources de la polyphonie narrative chez les écrivaines africaines
    Author Cuasante Fernández, Elena
    Issue Vol. IX/2007/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.9.2007.1.2
    Pages pp. 17-26
    Keywords literature, Africa, woman, enunciation, polyphony
    Abstract One of the main characteristics of feminine literary texts from black Africa is the dominant use of the first person as a narrative instance of the story. In this work we will try to show how the homodiegetic narrative of the first texts of women writers offers a series of specific features that refer, on the one hand, to the plural value of the use of the first person in non-fiction texts, and, on the other hand, to the introduction, in fiction texts, of new mechanisms of gender identification as polyphony or dialogic communication between women.
  • Espaces de bonheur dans le voyage mirbellien
    Author Bermúdez Medina, Lola
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.2.3
    Pages pp. 301-314
    Keywords Octave Mirbeau, travel, joy, journal, travelogue
    Abstract Certain passages in OctaveMirbeau's novels tend to subdue the imprecatory character of his fiction. This paper addresses what is referred to as espaces de bonheur 'spaces of joy' in La 628-E8 (1907), a personal account of Mirbeau's travels through Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, which displays a number of characteristically modern features - a hybrid journal, travelogue and "self-fiction" - and in which three spaces are explored that please and relieve the author's sensitivity and writing: the automobile itself, the harbour, and art, embodiments of genius, grace, and human effort.
  • Français écrit - français parlé dans L'Amant de Marguerite Duras
    Author Fričová, Eva
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.2.4
    Pages pp. 317-324
    Keywords the passage as a narrative strategy, le métissage linguistique, Marguerite Duras, L'Amant, verbal/non-verbal communication
    Abstract This paper focuses on "the passage", the key term and key place of the setting in Marguerite Duras's L'Amant: namely the apartment where the couple in love meets and finds their shelter. This place acts on the one hand as the space of communication (whether verbal or nonverbal), which contributes to the continual formation of the female character's identity in the text. On the other hand, "the passage" is understood and analysed as the narrative strategy (that is, the organization or the composition of the text) of this prose with autobiographical features. Moreover, "le métissage linguistique" manifested in L'Amant is illustrated and commented on.
  • Millet - un français écrit pur ? Le bruissement du français parlé dans l'écriture de Millet
    Author Malinovská, Zuzana
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/2
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.2.5
    Pages pp. 325-332
    Keywords Richard Millet, written language, spoken language, French, literature
    Abstract The language of the contemporary French author Richard Millet is often considered to be excessively traditional. The author strictly adheres to the stylistic rules of the written language which is in contrast with the spoken language of his characters. This study concentrates on the aesthetic effects of this tension between the spoken and written French in Millet's texts published in the last ten years.
  • Nerval et la Hollande: à propos d'une lettre mal datée
    Author Brix, Michel
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.4
    Pages pp. 63-67
    Keywords Gérard de Nerval, Théophile Thoré, Arsène Houssaye, Holland, travel
    Abstract Gérard de Nerval travelled to Holland twice: in September 1844 and in May 1852. Specialists maintain that an undated letter to Théophile Thoré stems from Nerval's second trip (in 1852). Written in Paris, this letter indicates that the author is about to rejoin his friend Arsène Houssaye in Brussels and asks Thoré to recommend some art galleries in Holland. At the time, Théophile Thoré was in fact a well-known art critic. In May 1852, however, he was living in exile in London. Nerval had been travelling alone at the time. Given that we know that he went to Holland with Arsene Houssaye just once, in 1844, it appears that the letter to Thoré should be dated the first two weeks of September 1844.
  • La ragione aperta. Guida (modesta) alle Città invisibili di Calvino
    Author D'Angelo, Biagio
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.5
    Pages pp. 69-86
    Keywords travel, comparative literature, reason, allegory, utopia
    Abstract In its allegorical travel through imaginary places, Calvino's Invisible Cities shows the oscillation between the limits and the opening of reason. Through the binomial "memory-desire," Marco Polo, the hero of this poetical Baedeker, insists on finding a place that responds to his longing for completeness. The pessimistic vision of certain cities is broken by an "open reason," which represents, for Calvino, the only possible "reading" of a dramatic travel through experience and existence.
  • L'oralité dans la littérature canadienne-française et québécoise
    Author Kyloušek, Petr
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.6
    Pages pp. 89-99
    Keywords French Canadian and Quebec literature, orality, peripherization/deperipherization, baroque tendencies, québécitude
    Abstract Contrary to the situation in France, French Canadian and Quebec literature lays much greater importance on orality. The effect of the joual in texts and on stage in the period of 1950–1980 as well as the literary experience of writers such as Godbout (vécrire), Gauvreau (langue exploréenne), Ducharme, Tremblay, Renaud, Victor-Lévy Beaulieu, Maillet and others reintroduce orality in the modern literary context. The paper attempts to clarify some causes and factors influencing the phenomenon: the linguistic and cultural circumstances during the colonization period, the tendencies towards a baroque expression leading to a scenografy of literary performances, cultural peripherization (19th and 20th century), linguistic and cultural emancipation and the pursuit of a new cultural identity—the québécitude.
  • Les fureurs d'un physicien quantique. Quelques remarques sur le style de Michel Houellebecq
    Author Beránková, Eva
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.7
    Pages pp. 101-108
    Keywords contemporary literature, stylistic research, French, revolt, moralism
    Abstract Although Michel Houellebecq makes a provocative claim that in literature he places content above form, there is a growing debate about his style in the academic world. By analyzing three of the author's novels we find that all of them consist roughly of three stylistic levels. Whereas the basic level is designed as deliberately neutral ("shallow") writing based on sciences or non-fiction, Houellebecq often does not hesitate to rise to purely lyrical heights or, conversely, revert to the most vulgar language. It is using slang or argot French that enables the writer to create his own original style which can perhaps be only compared to Celine. In the same way as his predecessor, Houellebecq overwhelms readers with an outpour of swearwords; he drowns them in a sea of malicious remarks. Nevertheless, these verbal provocations are not self-serving. However paradoxical it may sound, Michel Houellebecq is above all a very original moralist. His cynical "in fact", a kind of variation of La Rochefoucauld's "is... only", aims at destroying illusions, removing masks and liberating European society from the dictatorship of political correctness. Only in this way is it possible, he claims, to escape what he calls today's "slow suicide of the West".
  • Le langage de l'abjection: Kristeva et Céline
    Author Fulka, Josef
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.8
    Pages pp. 109-115
    Keywords Louis-Ferdinand Céline, Julia Kristeva, French literary theory, psychoanalysis, abjection
    Abstract The aim of the present paper is to discuss Kristeva's notion of abjection, as it is presented in her book entitled Pouvoirs de l'horreur (essai sur l'abjection), and to analyse the consequences such a psychological view of literature seems to imply. Abjection is a mechanism of introjection/rejection that characterises the pre-oidipal affective life of human being. Before being able to constitute itself as subjet in the proper sense of the word, the human being judges the surrounding objects (partial objects, according to Melanie Klein's coinage) from the point of view of their immediate affective influence. As an example of this primitive affective reaction, which consists of rejecting the objects which are supposed to be "bad" and introjecting the ones which are supposed to be "good," Kristeva presents an analysis of Céline's novels. This paper tries to measure the consequences of this interpretation of literary writing.
  • Louis-Ferdinand Céline et l'oral populaire
    Author Zabojnikova, Hviezdoslava
    Issue Vol. VIII/2006/1
    Category Critica
    DOI 10.1556/Verb.8.2006.1.9
    Pages pp. 117-125
    Keywords spoken code, written code, phonetic code, Louis-Ferdinand Céline, spoken language
    Abstract The study analyses innovative stylistic means of French novelist Louis-Ferdinand Céline - one of the first writers who has introduced the need to place spoken language into written text. The author treats theoretical paradox of spoken French in its written form, analysing the double linguistic distinction between the phonetic code and the graphic code and between the spoken code and the written code. Célin's style, which modifies the rules of standard French, is characterised by the argotic and vulgarised narration, which decomposes traditional syntax. The use of new means of expression is effectuated at several levels - at the vocabulary level (argot, neologisms, derivation), at the syntagma level (repetition, anticipation, segmentation), and at the sentence level (the use of juxtaposition and coordination on detriment to the subordination). The verb forms typical of colloquial style or, on the contrary, forms which are used in traditional narration are also introduced. The paper deals with Célin's first novel Voyage au bout de la nuit, where the narration is still traditional, the narrator is fictitious, his name is different from the author's, the narration is linear, the novel is divided into chapters and the story has a beginning and an end. The search for the new means of expression is therefore reflected exclusively at the level of language and style.
  • Français écrit - français parlé
    Author Gorilovics, Tivadar
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 375-403
    Abstract The opposition between written and spoken language is particularly conspicuous in French. The issue can be approached from various angles and at various levels. This paper discusses the problems of (standard) usage as well as the representation of the spoken language with a special emphasis on the age of romanticism and realism (Balazac, Monnier, Zola, Maupassant, Courteline). 20th-century poets and artists will also be considered (Barbusse, Céline and Raymond Queneau). The paper highlights the use of certain tenses (imparfait du subjonctif, passé simple) in French because of their practical and literary importance.
  • L'oralité - tradition culturelle et/ou option esthétique? A propos de deux romans francophones
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 405-422
    Abstract As a starting point of this study, we suppose that verbality and the use of written records come across in a different way in the francophone or the so-called post-colonial literature than, for instance, in the European literature, in which it has a longer tradition. To establish the truth of the thesis and to show the typical features, we have chosen two novels, one is by Patrick Chamoiseau, the other is by Fouad Laroui. The first one is linked to creole traditions, the latter one to Arabic- Moroccan traditions but both of them use the genre of the (post)-modern novel. The paper, on one hand, reveals the manner of verbality, embedded into the text, on the other hand, it shows the general structures, hidden under the surface like for example the child's path towards the school, i.e., towards knowledge, or the otherness of the home-comer compared to the ones who stayed at home. Nevertheless, the key point of the interpretation of both novels is their relationship to the French culture and language which in both cases is simply an inevitable fact, but nowadays this fact does not raise any difficulties in forming an independent identity or applying post-modern discourses in their own contexts.
  • Le théâtre-récit: exemple Marguerite Duras ou l'oralité écrite et l'écrit parlé
    Author Šimková, Soňa
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 423-429
    Abstract The present paper is concerned with the question of the substance of language in the work of Marguerite Duras. Her works can be characterised as a fluid passage between the novel, dramatic text and film script. In the French literature, her theatre work is subsumed under the concept of théâtre-récit, which refers to an uncanonical type of theatre, the theatre of narration rather than direct representation. The author created a specific vision of text presentation which was best fulfilled by the director Claude Régy and Duras herself in her own stagings. In fact, this new and alternative way to text presentation was based on telling and not on showing. By telling the text from a distance, all its orality emerges and plays a main role in the performance - the language of Marguerite Duras being a texture of oral, spoken and written style.
  • La prima sestina di Francesco Petrarca
    Author Hoffmann, Béla
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 133-152
    Abstract Strictly speaking, the focus of the present essay is Petrarch's "Sestina 22" ("A qualunque animale alberga in terra") in Canzoniere; however, the peculiarities of the Petrarchan sestina will also be touched upon, including the relationship of Petrarch's poetic practice with that of his actual forerunners. In this respect, the provençal Arnaut Daniel and Dante will be mentioned. The essay aims at providing an analysis of the role end-words play in generating both meaning and theme. In addition, a special emphasis will be laid upon examining their sound effect and the functions these words carry in the given poetic idiom. Furthermore, a scrutiny will be given to the envoy and its relations to permutation and rhymes occurring at stanza-closures as well as to questions of versification and genre.
  • Petrarca e l'umanesimo politico del quattrocento
    Author Cappelli, Guido M.
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 153-175
    Abstract Il saggio intende mettere in luce gli elementi teorici che l'umanesimo politico ha mutuato dal pensiero politico petrarchesco, segnalando il debito che anche a questo proposito la cultura moderna contrae nei confronti di Petrarca. A tal fine, individua quattro tipologie ideologico-letterarie: l'epistola politica, l'uso dei classici come auctoritates, le modalità di impiego dell'esemplarità antica e gli elementi dottrinali di teoria del potere, e ne studia la ripresa nell'opera di alcuni dei principali umanisti quattrocenteschi.
  • Petrarca nella Corte: Un modello di comportamento del cortegiano-umanista
    Author Puskás, István
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 177-183
    Abstract During the 15th and 16th century, Petrarch played an important role in the various areas of cultural and everyday life. One of the sources of his influence was that he could answer any question concerning his art, though the interpretations differed according to the various readings. This is what happened in the case of his opinion about the regal court, too. I intend to introduce one episode of this long story of the relationship between the humanist and the regal court influenced by Petrarca. This episode contains the story of Ferrara in the 15th century and Pandolfo Collenuccio, the literator.
  • I mercanti lettori del Petrarca
    Author Brambilla, Simona
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 185-219
    Abstract The article is divided into two parts. The first part analyses how, between the 14th and the 16th century, the Italian merchants read the works of Petrarch, paying attention to material aspects, such as ownership, support, mercantesca hand, language and circulation; the study is based on the available catalogues of manuscripts by Petrarch. The second part studies the circulation of Petrarch's works among a small group of readers who lived in Florence and Prato (late 14th and early 15th century): the merchant and politician Guido del Palagio, the merchant Francesco Datini, the notary Lapo Mazzei and two churchmen, Giovanni dalle Celle and Luigi Marsili. The paper is based on material already published as well as research in archives.
  • La Speranza e le sue sirocchie nel De remediis di Petrarca
    Author Špička, Jiří
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 221-234
    Abstract I personaggi che dialogano nel De remediis di Petrarca, Gaudium et Spes nel primo libro, Dolor et Metus nel secondo, fronteggiati dalla Ratio, si mostrano come fortemente schematici e piatti. Il presente intervento si propone di cercare il significato dei quattro moti dell'animo all'interno della filosofia stoica, di analizzare il loro rapporto con la morale cristiana nonché i loro rapporti reciproci. L'accento è posto in particolare sul personaggio della Spes e si cerca di commentare, su base lessicale, la presenza dei termini che la riguardano nel testo del De remediis.
  • Tra spiritualità e cultura: Francesco Petrarca e il vescovo Ildebrandino Conti
    Author Frasso, Giuseppe
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 235-245
    Abstract Ildebradino Conti, bishop of Padua and ambassador to the Court of Buda, was a close friend of Francesco Petrarca, who had been, since 1349, one of the canons of the duomo of Padua. This article, through the examination of Ildebradino's library and some of Petrarca's letters, in particular Fam. XV 14, aims at suggesting a way of researching new works of Petrarca.
  • La Concezione della Fortuna in Petrarca
    Author Kaposi, Márton
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 247-261
    Abstract Linking the tradition of antiquity (fatum, fortuna, casus) with Christian doctrine (deus, providentia), Petrarch tries to interpret fortune as an important and unpredictable force originating partly from God, partly from the talents and actiones (virtues, sins) of man, crucially influencing the lives of individuals and peoples. Fortune being essentially changing, unpredictable, it would be erroneous to found one's life on it, but it must be taken into account: one should reduce its possibilities, and learn to handle its favours and blows. One can best limit its effects by avoiding mortal sin, developing activity-related virtues (fortitudo, iustitita), and handling consciously its interference with one's life: not overestimating its favours, and developing our virtues in connection with moderation and constancy (prudentia, temperantia, patientia). If one can, to some extent, handle fortune, one can become more independent, can significantly influence one's own destiny: instead of forfeiting happiness in the afterlife, one can live a life in harmony with that.
  • Dal De viris illustribus al De mulieribus claris
    Author Sciacovelli, Antonio Donato
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 263-279
    Abstract The present article shows the affinities in some biographical writings of Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio: the theme of the exaltation of the past, as opposed to the present time, as well as the corruption of the modern man may well be the very fundamental trait d'union between the two writers.
  • "Uscire dalla vita" - Il Secretum come biografia non-vera di Petrarca
    Author Tombi, Beáta
    Issue Vol. VII/2005/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 281-289
    Abstract In my paper, I am going to study Petrarch's autobiography through a standard theory of postmodern deconstructionism, and confute the traditional concept of this genre. According to this proposal, every text, canonized by tradition, breaks away from its own place, in order to reorganize everyday tabulations. My work proceeds at two levels. The first part is framed by the traditional quality of the act of writing/reading as self-confession or self-examination. The exact study of Secretum results in a new theory: the autobiography essentially becomes a kind of writing or reading method, recurring in every kind of text. The second part is dedicated to the true or verifiable character of the same composition. Shortly, in this part, I am going to confirm my previous hypothesis through the application of several philosophical prospects. Actually, this critical attitude results in the review of traditional paradigms turning every autobiography into a false-autobiography and all kinds of text into a virtual autobiography.
  • En busca del Paraíso perdido. Conversación con Mario Vargas Llosa en Budapest
    Author Csuday, Csaba
    Issue Vol. V/2003/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 357-368
    Abstract In this interview in April 2003, the world famous Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa speaks about his life and some of his novels with a special focus on the last one, El Paraiso en la otra esquina 'The Paradise on the other corner'. Llosa also talks about current issues, such as the political situation in Iraq, the European Union, and Cuba.
  • Paris dans l'imaginaire des poètes hongrois
    Author Rollin, Pascal
    Issue Vol. V/2003/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 369-385
    Abstract At the beginning of the last century, Hungarian artists, including painters, photographers and writers, went on a pilgrimage to Paris, and were seduced by the very special atmosphere of the City of Light, definitely a place to see, and to be seen. This paper scrutinizes various texts, correspondences as well as autobiographies of some of the leading Hungarian writers (Endre Ady, Dezs? Kosztolányi, András Hevesi, Miklós Radnóti and Attila József ) to reveal how and how much they loved Paris.
  • "Dentro y fuera". El problema del espacio "postfantástico" en la exposición de Ella imagina de Juan José Millás
    Author Csuday, Csaba
    Issue Vol. V/2003/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 387-396
    Abstract This paper sets off with the philosophical notion of Space, with special respect to Paul Natorp's and Heidegger's definitions. Then, it goes on to observe how this philosophical approximation can be related to the monologue entitled Ella imagina 'She imagines' by the Spanish writer, Juan José Millás. The paper attempts to find out the content and the meaning of the opposition 'inside' and 'outside' in the work and to describe how it characterizes the protagonist, as the reality of text.
  • Hans Jonas: responsabilità ed eccesso
    Author Sità, Michele
    Issue Vol. V/2003/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 397-408
    Abstract Nowadays, scientific progress seems to have reached such high levels that it can satisfy almost every human demand: mankind apparently has an absolute, unlimited, and sometimes irresponsible power at its disposal. As an opposition to the excesses of a technological civilization, Hans Jonas proposes an ethics based on responsibility, a kind of 'imperative' which puts the arrogance of a thoughtless progress to a halt. The consequences and the impacts of human activity have by now become unforeseeable, and man may well lose control of his technological successes by turning them into real failures, not only for himself but potentially for all of humanity. Man's responsibility must therefore depend not only on his own and his peers' life, but also, maybe above all, on the life of the next generations. Man needs to look at not only the immediate present but also at the perspectives in the long run: he should begin to think in the long term and thus needs to rediscover himself. The elaboration of a theory of responsibility is therefore focuses on that rediscovery, a recovery of the truest authenticity, and the wish for a better future.
  • Péguy et Hugo: une admiration réticente
    Author Foucault, Yann
    Issue Vol. V/2003/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 5-12
    Abstract The most influential author in Péguy's life was Victor Hugo. Péguy never really reproached Hugo for the stylistic faults he was often criticized for. Only when Péguy broke with his socialist friends did he become critical of the political side of Hugo's poetry. It was not because he did non share Hugo's ideas anymore, but because he thought that political rhetoric was insincere on Hugo's part, contrary to his genius, and harmful to beauty in poetry. According to Péguy, when Hugo listens to his genius and does not politicize, he is unsurmountable. If Hugo has his limits, it is just that, not being a Christian, but a genuine pagan, there are things in the human soul he was unable to perceive. Those are the things Péguy, after Corneille or Pascal, tried to express in his late poetry.
  • L'image du poète Victor Hugo, vu par quelques­uns de ses contemporains
    Author Maár, Judit
    Issue Vol. V/2003/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 13-31
    Abstract The present paper surveys the various interpretations of Victor Hugo's contemporaries concerning his personality and work. More exactly, I evoke some of the reflections of Baudelair and Mallarm´e regarding the literary conception of Hugo and their judgment of his work. Their views also reflect a more general image of the poet in the time of romanticism and post-romanticism.
  • Le pittoresque et la couleur locale dans Le Voyage vers les Pyrénées de Victor Hugo
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. V/2003/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 33-43
    Abstract Victor Hugo wrote Le Voyage Vers les Pyrénées in 1843, during his travel in Spain. This work is analysed by the author from several aspects. First, taking the ancient archetypes of travelogue and story-telling as points of departure, the author discusses the characteristics of the genre in the 19th century. Then she goes on and inserts the work in the process of paradigm change typical of the century, when the notions 'pittoresque', 'couleur locale' and 'the exotic' were all present in the texts; nevertheless, the emphasis was increasingly shifted towards the need for presenting reality. Basing her arguments on quotes, the author argues that in the case of Victor Hugo, the notions mentioned basically have the same workings in travelogues written in prose as well as in poems.
  • B(i)orges dostoievskiano. Una posible resolución de un problema de don Isidro Parodi
    Author D'Angelo, Biagio
    Issue Vol. V/2003/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 45-54
    Abstract In this article, the author provides a panoramic view of Jorge Luis Borges' literary world, focusing especially on the figure of Fodor Dostoievski. As a starting point, an interview is considered. The main concern of the paper is an interpretation of Six problems for Don Isidro Parodi (aka Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi), which Borges wrote under the pseudonym ‘Honorio Bustos Domecq', together with Adolfo Bioy Casares. The presence of Dostoievski is pointed out in these rather bizarre police novels.
  • Le père absent et le fils en exil. L'image négative de l'enfant prodigue. Esquisses du dialogue Pilinszky - Camus
    Author Szávai, Dorottya
    Issue Vol. IV/2002/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 167-186
    Abstract In this essay the author proposes a hypothesis: "sin and prayer" constitute one of the most complex metaphors of János Pilinszky's poetry. The study has a double structure: the vertical dimension is given by the examination of the dialogues coming from Pilinszky's poetry and Dostoievstky's, Kafka's and Camus' works, meanwhile the horizontal one places this intertextual analysis in the context of the poems, revealing the basic role of "sin and prayer".
  • Place et rôle de la figure féminine chez Emile Zola à travers l'étude de trois oeuvres: L'assommoir, Germinal et La Bête Humaine
    Author Payet, Marie
    Issue Vol. IV/2002/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 187-196
    Abstract The main theme in Émile Zola's literary work is to reconsider man's place in the universe, his future and furthermore, the place and the role of works of art in society. Zola, first of all places his characters into an environment which determines them and limits their freedom. The material proposed here is an extract of a research on the character system established by Émile Zola while creating his social fresco, Les Rougon-Macquart.
  • Le respect du passé engendre la promesse de l'avenir. Odyssée historique avec Antonine Maillet
    Author Vajk, Zsuzsanna
    Issue Vol. IV/2002/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 197-203
    Abstract The study presents an analysis of Canadian French literature in general and in particular that of the literary work of Antonine Maillet. We become acquainted with several particulars of the history of the Acadiens, which will constitute an interpretation of History, and which is put into parallelism with the Ancient Testament's events, Rabelais, Homer and Virgil. At the same time, the examination of Maillet's registers of styles highlight the metaphors of a local-global human history.
  • Convenance et résistance: introduction
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 353-360
    Abstract Notre revue, nouvellement fondée, a pour vocation d'accueillir les travaux relevant du domaine des études romanes - cette dénomination étant prise en un sens plutôt large. Lors de sa création le profil n'étant pas précisé d'une façon rigoureuse, les rédacteurs de la revue ont laissé libre cours aux auteurs de publier leurs articles dans les domaines les plus différents, en français, en italien, en espagnol, en allemand et en anglais. Néanmoins, quelques numéros ont été consacrés à des sujets précis et préalablement choisis et précisés. Aujourd'hui, en proposant ce numéro, la rédaction souhaite aller dans ce sens et consacrer la rubrique Critica à un sujet spécifique...
  • Convenance et résistance: Enjeux contextuels d'une antonymie
    Author Tourrel, Jean-Paul
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 361-371
    Abstract The words convenance "convenience" and résistance "resistence" are not a priori in a relation of opposition. However, as their form is similar and their meaning is opposite, they may be conceived by linguistic awareness as antonyms. In his essay Mr Tourrel attempts to reveal whether there is semantic opposition between the words. Proceeding from a lexicographic definition illustrated by examples, he examines whether the two words can be adjusted to the same semantic axis, whether they are in a relation of logical presupposition, and whether they are of opposite semantic value.
  • Résistance et convenance dans Le Roi Pêcheur de Julien Gracq
    Author Gerfaud, Jean-Pierre
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 373-383
    Abstract In his essay, Mr Gerfaud focuses on the relationship between resistence (résistance) and conformity (convenance) as they are represented through the attitudes of the play's protagonists. He also suggests a special interpretation of these two notions on the basis of the text.
  • L'esthétique de la convenance, ou les aventures du lieu commun à l'âge classique en France
    Author Giuliani, Pierre
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 385-398
    Abstract Today it is a platitude in aesthetics that appreciable literature is supposed to be innovative and non-conform to the existing aesthetic norms. In his essay, Mr Giuliani attempts to comprehend how the literature of French Classicism managed to prosper and maintain its fertility following an aesthetic of convenance, that is, a system which excludes all kinds of resistence to established norms and principles.
  • Faust païsan d'Eloi Abert, en parler nord-occitan, adaptation d'une légende qui dérange
    Author Fréchet, Claudine
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 399-410
    Abstract The essay of Ms Fréchet presents Eloi Abert's The Pagan Faust (Lou Faust paisan), a play that can be considered as the author's most important piece of art. In the essay the three versions of the legend are compared: the original legend, the Volksbuch version, the version of Goethe and that of Eloi Abert. Ms Fréchet concludes that the play of Eloi Abert is a form of resistence against the materialistic way of life which came to dominate the countryside by the beginning of the 20th century.
  • La vengeance comme devoir: Chimène dans Le Cid de Corneille
    Author Zsák, Helga
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 411-418
    Abstract The essay proposes an interpretation of heroism and vengeance in Corneille's Cid with regard to the figure of Chimene. Offering a wide range of staging possibilities, the theme of female vengeance has been a recurring theme in literature since the very beginning of tragedy. Vengeace in Corneille's plays is remarkably vigorous and refers constantly to justice; characters admit their desire of vengeance and labour to fulfill it.
  • Traditionalisme et refus dans Les Mots de Sartre
    Author Bors, Edit
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 419-426
    Abstract The autobiography of Sartre proposes two layers of interpretation. In the first layer of interpretation the autobiography is conform to the traditions of the genre as they have been established by Rousseau and Gide, while the second layer destroys the text as an autobiography: the narrator keeps a certain distance form the child he used to be and thus demystifies his childhood memories. Traditionally, the autobiography is supposed to present the intellectual and moral genesis of a person. The Words satisfies this criterion: the mental development of the child and the birth of the yound man's vocation are described retrospectively, in a chronological order. Ms Bors emphasizes the possibility to interpret The Words as an ideological parody of autobiography and suggests that the project of Sartre was an important contribution to the rebirth of the genre.
  • L'approche acroamatique de la poésie de Simone Weil
    Author Gutbrod, Gizella
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 427-439
    Abstract In her essay Ms Gutbrod presents the poetry of Simone Weil from the point of view of its sounding and tries to rehabilitate the role of acoustic sensitivity on different levels of the interpretation. Simone Weil is rather neglected as a poet, although both her poetic practice and theory are highly remarkable. The turning point of her artistic development is a mystical experience after which she turns definitely to poetry and abandons all themes except for the representation of the mystical quest. To highlight the poetic aspect of this change Ms Gutbrod attempts to unfold the themes of cry and silence in Simone Weil's poetry: first she examines the acoustic universe of the poems (that is, the physical level of hearing), then she describes the role of listening in the process of reception. Finally she reflects on the notion of listening ment in an ontological sense.
  • Marcabru - troubadour mystique?
    Author Majorossy, Imre Gábor
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 441-450
    Abstract Marcabru, the last representative of the first generation of troubadours had a very complex personality. The short study wishes to prove the real closeness of the poem Pax in nomine Domini as for poetical atmosphere to Christian doctrine. To go beyond stereotypes, the study shows slight differences between meanings of biblical texts and common traditions. All this reflection is a part of a greater research which tends to reveal and prove a supposition on an important relationship between courtly and mystical poetry.
  • Les clins d'oeil du pasticheur: innovation et intertextualité dans Les Atomiques d'Eric Laurrent
    Author Zentai Horváth, Krisztina
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 451-461
    Abstract Is it still possible to renew the novelisitc form? One of the young authors published by Minuit, Eric Laurrent shows that such an enterprise is not as hopeless as it might seem. Laurrent sets his novel in the genre ot the spy novel and hence establishes a communication with the reader deceiving all his expectations. On the one hand, this exaggerated intertextual fullness shows the narrative as an artificial product so as to keep the reader at a certain distance from the fiction. On the other hand, using a series of discours transcending our everyday life, the novel gathers the scattered fragments of the contemporary world. Doing this, it obeys a postmodern aesthetics which, unlike the modernity, doesn't try to provide an answer to the chaos but integrates it.
  • Des cris à l'écrit: l'écriture de l'entre-deux dans les romans d'Assia Djebar
    Author Horváth, Miléna
    Issue Vol. III/2001/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 463-472
    Abstract The goal of the present study is to observe Assia Djebar's novels written since 1980. The significance of these novels is that they represent a new literary writing practice. Their specificity offers us a better understanding of that part of the Maghrebian literature that has been written in French. We can state that Djebar's fiction results form the interaction of her imagination and her heterogeneous origin: Arabic, Islamic, French and Berber.
  • Interview avec Marc Quaghebeur
    Author Lemba, Robert
    Issue Vol. II/2000/1
    Category Critica
    Abstract En publiant l'interview de Marc Quaghebeur par Robert Lemba, la revue Verbum introduit une nouvelle forme d'article, non seulement pour enrichir le matériel littéraire et institutionnel proposé a nos lecteurs, mais aussi pour illustrer quelques facettes du fonctionnement des Belles Lettres. A coté des articles savants rédigés par nos collaborateurs et portant sur les sujets plutôt classiques de la littérature française, nous pensons ainsi élargir le champ de nos intérêts, en y ajoutant des sujets pris dans l'actualité littéraire et, en plus, appartenant a un domaine plus large, notamment a celui de la francophonie.
  • Las imágenes literarias en algunas obras de Santa Teresa de Jesús
    Author Seres, Krisztina
    Issue Vol. II/2000/1
    Category Critica
    Abstract Para comprender mejor los valores literarios en las tres obras más conocidas de Santa Teresa de Ávila: Las moradas, Camino de perfección y Libro de su vida, es necesario consagrar unas líneas al misticismo espanol y a sus mayores representantes.
  • Jeux "horizontaux". Variations sur le thème du jeu
    Author Szávai, Dorottya
    Issue Vol. II/2000/1
    Category Critica
    Abstract Il faut mentionner le culte stendhalien du monde théâtral et musical, en particulier de l'opéra qui est présent dans la structure thématique de l'oeuvre entiere. Il faut noter aussi les innombrables allusions et citations d'opéra dans tous les textes, et souvent en épigraphe des chapitres. (Voir la fréquence des citations significatives de Don Juan dans Le rouge et le noir.)...
  • Enjeux et significations de l'ésotérisme nervalien
    Author Brix, Michel
    Issue Vol. I/1999/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 178-187
    Abstract La critique a longtemps confondu l'œuvre de Nerval avec un plaidoyer en faveur de l'ésotérisme et des sciences occultes. Sur la foi des Illuminés, notamment, on a donné de Nerval l'image d'un écrivain féru de nécromancie et de théosophie; mû par un désir quasi faustien de connaître la face cachée des choses, le poète aurait tenté, sa vie durant, de pénétrer les secrets de l'au-delà...
  • Balzac et la peinture (deuxième partie)
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. I/1999/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 188-206
    Abstract Déjà dans l'Avant-Propos de La Comédie humaine Balzac cite le grand peintre italien: „Pour créer beaucoup de vierges, il faut être Raphaël. La littérature est peut-être, sous ce rapport, au-dessous de la peinture.”...
  • ¿Orbis tertius non datur?
    Author Csuday, Csaba
    Issue Vol. I/1999/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 208-210
    Abstract ¿Cuál es el secreto del „milagro” de Borges? ¿El que habla, lo que dice (enuncia, pregunta), el cómo de lo que dice o por lo que dice? ¿Qué explica que mientras el boom latinoamericano se desvanece poco a poco, la popularidad de Borges no disminuye sino al contrario: parece incrementarse cada vez más (como lo demuestra la excelente colocación de la reedición húngara o, más exactamente, la nueva selección en cinco tomos de su obra en las listas de los libros mejor vendidos)?...
  • Intertesti postmoderni "L'Isola del Giorno Prima" e il nichilismo di fine secolo
    Author D'Angelo, Biagio
    Issue Vol. I/1999/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 212-223
    Abstract „D'altra parte che, malgrado le loro virtù, i Romanzi abbiano i loro difetti, Roberto avrebbe dovuto saperlo. Come la medicina insegna anche i veleni, la metafisica turba con inopportune sottigliezze i dogmi della religione, l'etica raccomanda la magnificenza (che non giova a tutti), l'astrologia patrocina la superstizione, l'ottica inganna, la musica fomenta gli amori, la geometria incoraggia l'ingiusto dominio, la matematica l'avarizia – così' l'Arte del Romanzo, pur avvertendoci che ci provvede finzioni, apre una porta nel Palazzo dell'Assurdità, oltrepas-sata per leggerezza la quale, essa si richiude alle nostre spalle.”...
  • Du Génie aux Mémoires
    Author Ádám, Anikó
    Issue Vol. I/1999/2
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 224-235
    Abstract La critique définit, à l'aide d'un ensemble de concepts théoriques, les frontières entre les genres littéraires. Etudier l'oeuvre de Chateaubriand sous le point de vue du genre est extrêmenet intéressant. L'auteur excelle en effet à insérer et enchâsser les discours les uns dans les autres; son oeuvre possède une esthétique des confins (celle des fins et des bords) entre la vie et la mort, entre deux époques, entre la poésie et la prose et entre les genres littéraires. Même si nous ne pouvons pas définir d'une manière exacte les contours de tel ou tel genre nous pouvons, par contre, bien saisir la ligne de démarcation qui les sépare dans les textes de Chateaubriand...
  • "Deus meus et omnia!" (La totalità del Cantico delle Creature)
    Author Acél, Zsuzsanna
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 112-123
    Abstract Nei confronti del Cantico delle Creature di San Francesco d'Assisi gli sudiosi mostrano una curiosità permanente da secoli. Il loro approfondimento che non languisce, fra l'altro sorge dal fatto che il Cantico è adatto ad essere esaminato da punti di vista innumerevoli: come poesia, come opera d'arte, come uno dei primi documenti della lingua volgare, come puro contributo non trascurabile alla storia dell'ordine francescano e come un'opera, in forma letteraria, del fondatore...
  • Aproximación a un cierto límite. Análisis narratológico del cuento "Usted se tendió a tu lado" de Julio Cortázar
    Author Csuday, Csaba
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 124-134
    Abstract Uno de los críticos de Julio Cortázar, al hablar del libro de cuentos en que apareció Usted se tendió a tu lado, apunta a cierta „búsqueda del misterio” como rasgo característico de estos cuentos, definiéndola así: „No se trata de lo mágico en el sentido más artificioso del término: no hay transformación, sino profundización, un movimiento indagatorio sin azar. Ese movimiento de aproximación no nace de la voluntad, del capricho o de la técnica del escritor...”
  • Simone Weil, critique littéraire sur le surréalisme
    Author Gutbrod, Gizella
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 135-140
    Abstract Simone Weil, platonicienne examine dans ses écrits mystiques le rapport du bien, du beau et du vrai, leur unité est le point de départ de toutes ses réflexions philosophiques. Elle définit sa conception littéraire par rapport à la morale, elle pense que le bien est le critère esthétique...
  • La quête impossible des premiers héros de la littérature algérienne de langue française
    Author Hardi, Ferenc
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 141-150
    Abstract Etrange aventure que celle des premiers romanciers algériens de langue française qui entreprennent de se dire dans une situation d'énonciation des plus inconfortables. En effet comment exprimer une réalité arabo-berbère dans une langue, une forme et une idéologie étrangères?...
  • "L'écrivain pouvait devenir un peintre" La culture picturale de Balzac
    Author Martonyi, Éva
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 151-169
    Abstract Honoré de Balzac rédige, en 1842 son Avant-Propos à la Comédie Humaine. Ce texte magistral n'est pas seulement une véritable introduction à son entreprise gigantesque, mais aussi le résumé, la récapitulation des éléments principaux qui régissent son oeuvre dont il a entrepris la rédaction dès 1829-1830. Après avoir terminé ses années d'apprentissage d'écrivain, après avoir publié un assez grand nombre de récits signés par divers pseudonymes, il décide de se mettre désormais en avant comme Honoré de Balzac. Son but est de conquérir en même temps la richesse et la célébrité, en un mot le monde, par la création d'un univers imaginaire qui constitue, néanmoins, une image fidèle de son temps et des moeurs de son époque...
  • Il tessuto antropologico del "Cristo" di Levi
    Author Paál, Zsuzsanna
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 170-177
    Abstract Si trovano in ogni epoca personaggi che non possiamo facilmente inserire in un solo ambiente della cultura, perchè possono esser interpretati in diversi modi: le loro opere hanno diverse letture. Leggere Levi è un caso del genere. Possiamo leggere il "Cristo si è fermato a Eboli" come un bel libro di memorie, ma anche come uno studio su una comunità rurale, o con il termine dell'antropologia britannica: rural comunity study. Qui facciamo un tentativo d'analisi secondo quest'ultima lettura del libro...
  • Dalla strada alla vetrata spazio pubblico e spazio privato nel teatro di Carlo Bertolazzi
    Author Zoppello, Mariateresa
    Issue Vol. I/1999/1
    Category Critica
    Pages pp. 178-180
    Abstract Negli atti unici giovanili contenuti nella raccolta Preludio (1892) e nella prima parte de El nost Milan: La povera gent (1893) lo spazio dell'azione scenica è lo spazio aperto, cittadino, lo spazio pubblico, connotato attraverso l'appartenenza all'area del corpo, del bisogno fisico e a quello della fuga, del sogno escapistico: la fame (il mercato del Verzée e le Cucine economiche), la sopravvivenza quotidiana (il Monte di Pietà e gli Asili notturni). Tutti luoghi ben noti al pubblico e la cui riconoscibilità viene accelerata da una scenografia spesso molto complicata che frammenta in piú piani lo spazio dell' azione e, nello stesso tempo tende ad espandersi ed a inglobare sulla scena porzioni sempre piú grandi di spazio esterno, mostrando le vie reali e facendo scorgere nel fondo edifici sconosciuti...